Browse Items (100 total)

PURPOSE: Transposable elements are known to remodel gene structure and provide a known source of genetic variation. Retrotransposon gag-like-3 (RTL3) is a mammalian retrotransposon-derived transcript (MART) whose function in the skeletal tissue is …

Aims Metformin is a commonly prescribed anti-hyperglycaemic pharmacological agent, and it remains a staple in the management of type II diabetes. In addition to metformin's glucose lowering effects, research has indicated that metformin inhibits…

Aims: Metformin is a commonly prescribed anti-hyperglycaemic pharmacological agent, and it remains a staple in the management of type II diabetes. In addition to metformin's glucose lowering effects, research has indicated that metformin inhibits…

The paternally imprinted neuronatin (NNAT) gene has been identified as a target of aberrant epigenetic silencing in diverse cancers, but no association with pediatric bone cancers has been reported to date. In screening childhood cancers, we…

Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Touchdown (TD) and Roundup, are among the most heavily-used herbicides in the world. While the active ingredient is generally considered non-toxic, the toxicity resulting from exposure to commercially-sold…

Clozapine use has declined, despite its superior antipsychotic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Implications for clozapine underutilization include suboptimal treatment outcomes and increased hospitalizations. Many barriers preventing…

Lipin‐1 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation and is involved in adipocyte development and maturation. Adiponectin is a hormone largely secreted by adipocytes. In adipocytes, lipin‐1 and adiponectin exhibit cross‐regulation. In…

Lipin‐1 is a Mg2+‐dependent phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase involved in the generation of diacylglycerol during synthesis of phospholipids and triglycerides. Ethanol‐mediated inhibitory effects on adipose‐specific lipin‐1 expression were…

PURPOSE: Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-ADR) agonists are used clinically for a range of indications including reducing elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Animal experiments show that…

Objectives: Hypertriglyceridaemia enhances cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulates plasma triglyceride levels by hydrolysing chylomicrons and very‐low‐density lipoprotein (VLDL). Metformin, an…

Astrocytes are the main homeostatic cell of the central nervous system. In addition, astrocytes mediate an inflammatory response when reactive to injury or disease known as astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is marked by an increased expression of glial…

Methionine metabolism is dysregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS). The methyl donor betaine is depleted in the MS brain where it is linked to changes in levels of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and mitochondrial impairment. We…

Rate constant estimation with heavy water requires a long-term experiment with data collection at multiple time points (3-4 weeks for mitochondrial proteome dynamics in mice and much longer in other species). When tissue proteins are analyzed, this…

Guideline-recommended anticoagulation is frequently omitted in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for reasons not fully understood, which may result in suboptimal care. A nationally representative, expert group of physicians…

Overdose of long-acting insulin can cause unpredictable hypoglycemia for prolonged periods of time. The initial treatment of hypoglycemia includes oral carbohydrate intake as able and/or parenteral dextrose infusion. Refractory hypoglycemia …

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar neuronal inclusions composed of aggregatedβ-synuclein (β-syn). These inclusions are associated with behavioral and pathological PD phenotypes. One strategy for…

The process of developing an old drug for new indications is now a widely accepted strategy of shortening drug development time, reducing drug costs, and improving drug availability, especially for rare and neglected diseases. In this mini-review, we…

The process of developing an old drug for new indications is now a widely accepted strategy of shortening drug development time, reducing drug costs, and improving drug availability, especially for rare and neglected diseases. In this mini-review, we…

Deficits in learning and memory are often associated with disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis, which is regulated by numerous processes, including precursor cell proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation to mature neurons. Recent…

Human and animal studies have shown that exposure to the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous work showed that developmental dieldrin exposure increased neuronal susceptibility to…

Mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks or longer develop hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Additionally, a high-fat diet induces inflammation that remodels and affects the anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic …

Hepatic lipid metabolism is a series of complex processes that control influx and efflux of not only hepatic lipid pools, but also organismal pools. Lipid homeostasis is usually tightly controlled by expression, substrate supply, oxidation and…

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Tramadol is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 to form an active metabolite that exhibits its analgesic effect. Medications that inhibit this enzyme are used often in practice, yet the clinical impact of this interaction on the…

PURPOSE: Current clinical practice guidelines on management of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) in pediatric patients are reviewed. SUMMARY: The provision of EN and PN in pediatric patients poses many unique considerations and…

Introduction: Dextromethorphan (DXM), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, may have ketamine-like antidepressant effects. Dextromethorphan is extensively metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and its half-life in extensive metabolizers…

Purpose: Reoxygenation after hypoxia can increase reactive oxygen species and upregulate autophagy. We determined, for the first time, the impact of elevated IOP on hypoxia induction, superoxide accumulation, and autophagy in a bead model of…
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