Browse Items (102 total)

Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Touchdown (TD) and Roundup, are among the most heavily-used herbicides in the world. While the active ingredient is generally considered non-toxic, the toxicity resulting from exposure to commercially-sold…

Hepatic lipid metabolism is a series of complex processes that control influx and efflux of not only hepatic lipid pools, but also organismal pools. Lipid homeostasis is usually tightly controlled by expression, substrate supply, oxidation and…

PURPOSE: Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-ADR) agonists are used clinically for a range of indications including reducing elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Animal experiments show that…

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Recently, we reported that repeated exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus of adult mice,…

Purpose: Reoxygenation after hypoxia can increase reactive oxygen species and upregulate autophagy. We determined, for the first time, the impact of elevated IOP on hypoxia induction, superoxide accumulation, and autophagy in a bead model of…

The process of developing an old drug for new indications is now a widely accepted strategy of shortening drug development time, reducing drug costs, and improving drug availability, especially for rare and neglected diseases. In this mini-review, we…

Aims: Metformin is a commonly prescribed anti-hyperglycaemic pharmacological agent, and it remains a staple in the management of type II diabetes. In addition to metformin's glucose lowering effects, research has indicated that metformin inhibits…

Metabolic dysfunction accompanies neurodegenerative disease and aging. An important step for therapeutic development is a more sophisticated understanding of the source of metabolic dysfunction, as well as to distinguish disease-associated changes…

PURPOSE: The primary objective of this project is to evaluate an existing interprofessional, nonmalignant pain service by measuring the difference in patient pain scores (numeric rating scale-11) before and after a pharmacist-led pain education class…

The Society of Toxicology announces the development of a Learning Framework (https://www.toxicology.org/education/docs/SOT-Toxicology-Learning-Objectives.pdf ) for undergraduate toxicology that will facilitate the development and sharing of…

The process of developing an old drug for new indications is now a widely accepted strategy of shortening drug development time, reducing drug costs, and improving drug availability, especially for rare and neglected diseases. In this mini-review, we…

Introduction: Dextromethorphan (DXM), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, may have ketamine-like antidepressant effects. Dextromethorphan is extensively metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and its half-life in extensive metabolizers…

Astrocytes are the main homeostatic cell of the central nervous system. In addition, astrocytes mediate an inflammatory response when reactive to injury or disease known as astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is marked by an increased expression of glial…

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Tramadol is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 to form an active metabolite that exhibits its analgesic effect. Medications that inhibit this enzyme are used often in practice, yet the clinical impact of this interaction on the…

Pesticides are unique environmental contaminants that are specifically introduced into the environment to control pests, often by killing them. Although pesticide application serves many important purposes, including protection against crop loss and…

Purpose/Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the primary cause of dementia in the elderly, is one of the leading age-related neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. While AD is notorious for destroying memory and cognition, dementia patients also experience…

Clozapine use has declined, despite its superior antipsychotic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Implications for clozapine underutilization include suboptimal treatment outcomes and increased hospitalizations. Many barriers preventing…

OBJECTIVE: Depression guidelines discourage benzodiazepine monotherapy and limit use to short-term adjunctive therapy with antidepressants; however, patients with depression continue to receive benzodiazepine monotherapy. The prevalence and…

The objective of this opinion paper was to identify and describe the role of pharmacists in ensuring safe and optimal management of patients with glycemic excursions in the inpatient setting. The role of the pharmacist includes involvement in…

Accreditation standards set forth by the American Society of Health‐System Pharmacists note that postgraduate year one programs should have a formal process in place to screen candidates based upon predetermined criteria to ensure applicants have the…

Lipin‐1 is a Mg2+‐dependent phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase involved in the generation of diacylglycerol during synthesis of phospholipids and triglycerides. Ethanol‐mediated inhibitory effects on adipose‐specific lipin‐1 expression were…

Lipin‐1 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation and is involved in adipocyte development and maturation. Adiponectin is a hormone largely secreted by adipocytes. In adipocytes, lipin‐1 and adiponectin exhibit cross‐regulation. In…

Guideline-recommended anticoagulation is frequently omitted in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for reasons not fully understood, which may result in suboptimal care. A nationally representative, expert group of physicians…

BACKGROUND: Guidelines support statin therapy post-stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA); however, previously reported utilization rates are suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the incidence of statin usage in patients with a…

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar neuronal inclusions composed of aggregatedβ-synuclein (β-syn). These inclusions are associated with behavioral and pathological PD phenotypes. One strategy for…

Objectives: Hypertriglyceridaemia enhances cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulates plasma triglyceride levels by hydrolysing chylomicrons and very‐low‐density lipoprotein (VLDL). Metformin, an…

Purpose/Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the primary cause of dementia in the elderly, is one of the leading age-related neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. While AD is notorious for destroying memory and cognition, dementia patients also experience…
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