Browse Items (1071 total)

Dogs and cats are the 2 most common household pets. However, they may be a direct or indirect source of human infections. This article aims to familiarize physicians with some common and uncommon bacterial, rickettsial, parasitic, and fungal zoonotic…

At least 29 species of fossil primates have been referred to fruit, nectar, and/or exudate feeding dietary niches. Many studies have detailed the morphological correlates of fruit feeding in comparison to insectivory and folivory. In contrast, few…

Primate hands can be classified into two broad categories on the basis of ray proportions and other features. Ectaxonic hands are characterized by a longer fourth ray and are found in most strepsirhines. Most haplorhines possess mesaxonic hands which…

In the mustached bat, combination-sensitive neurons display integrative responses to combinations of acoustic elements in biosonar or social vocalizations. One type of combination-sensitive neuron responds to multiple harmonics of the…

The surface epithelium of 28 gallbladders removed during elective cholecystectomies and pathology collection was studied ultrastructurally. Focusing on 10 of the 28 cases that were diagnosed as cholecystitis, we found that the epithelium displayed…

BACKGROUND: Rat intrafusal fibers consist of multiple isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) whose expression involves complex interactions among motor neurons, sensory neurons, and muscle cells during spindle development. Little is known about the…

Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) protect the host by clearing effete and foreign particulates from the circulation. The current study was designed to identify, quantify, harvest, and provide a partial functional characterization of the…

Alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) in the rat and human brain is an acute-phase protein synthesized primarily by astrocytes, and it has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and other neuropathological processes. The activated forms of alpha 2M, but…

Whether afferents exert their morphogenetic influence on spindles through release of trophic factors at intrafusal fiber junctions or via participation in proprioceptive pathways which modulate the motor activity to muscles was investigated by…

The ability of hippocampal CA1 basal synapses to express N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-independent long-term potentiation (non-NMDA LTP) was studied and compared to the simultaneously induced apical dendritic non-NMDA LTP. Non-NMDA LTP in…

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are calcium-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity observed in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Low-frequency tetani (1-5 Hz) activates protein phosphatases to induce LTD, whereas high-frequency…

In the present study, [3H]nisoxetine binding to norepinephrine (NE) uptake sites and [3H]norepinephrine uptake were investigated within olfactory bulb (OB) and frontal cortex homogenates from intact and castrated male rats. Statistically significant…

The growth of fluorescence imaging technology and the development of sensitive fluorescent retrograde tracers has provided many new approaches for analyzing neuronal circuits. Fluorescent markers provide unparalleled opportunity for combining axonal…

Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopic observations related to morphological changes of the right atrium as well as the atrial endocardium during development (15th embryonic day and 1 day old) and aging (560 days old) in the Syrian…

Gorilla gorilla and the less-studied G. beringei occupy very different, geographically separate habitats. We studied the occurrence of various forms of arthritis to examine possible nature/nurture causality. The macerated skeletons of 38 G. beringei…

The character of arthritis has not received the same attention in Pan paniscus as it has in P. troglodytes. Reactive arthritis (a form of spondyloarthropathy) in the latter has been considered to be either a sexually transmitted or an…

The primate masticatory apparatus (MA) is a functionally integrated set of features, each of which performs important functions in biting, ingestive, and chewing behaviors. A comparison of morphological covariance structure among species for these MA…

Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and…

Recording reaction forces from primates during behaviors on vertical substrates, such as leaping, climbing, or biting trees, typically requires the design and construction of customized recording devices or mounting commercially available force…

We examined masseter and temporalis recruitment and firing patterns during chewing in five male Belanger's treeshrews (Tupaia belangeri), using electromyography (EMG). During chewing, the working-side masseters tend to show almost three times more…

We examined masseter recruitment and firing patterns during chewing in four adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), using electromyography (EMG). During chewing of tougher foods, the working-side superficial masseter tends to show, on average, 1.7…

Jaw-joint height (JJH) above the occlusal plane is thought to be influenced by cranial base angle (CBA) and facial angulation during growth. To better understand how JJH relates to midline craniofacial form, we test the hypothesis that relative…

Locomotor researchers have long known that adult primates employ a unique footfall sequence during walking. Most mammals use lateral sequence (LS) gaits, in which hind foot touchdowns are followed by ipsilateral forefoot touchdowns. In contrast, most…

Despite the importance that concepts of arboreal stability have in theories of primate locomotor evolution, we currently lack measures of balance performance during primate locomotion. We provide the first quantitative data on locomotor stability in…

OBJECTIVES: Dental eruption schedules have been closely linked to life history variables. Here we examine a sample of 50 perinatal primates (28 species) to determine whether life history traits correlate with relative tooth size at birth. MATERIALS…

OBJECTIVES: Relatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether…

The importance of locomotion to evolutionary fitness has led to extensive study of primate locomotor behavior, morphology and ecology. Most previous research has focused on adult primates, but in the last few decades, increased attention to locomotor…

All the intact female Syrian hamsters treated with medroxyprogesterone (MP) for a one-month period, without dietary manipulation, display gallbladder surface epithelial changes, and intraluminal deposits. These changes include excrescences in various…

The proximal and distal growth plates of the principal long bones do not contribute equally to longitudinal growth. Most forelimb elongation occurs at the shoulder and wrist, while most hindlimb growth occurs at the knee. This study examined whether…

The whale ear, initially designed for hearing in air, became adapted for hearing underwater in less than ten million years of evolution. This study describes the evolution of underwater hearing in cetaceans, focusing on changes in sound transmission…

Cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) have a soft tissue flipper that encases most of the forelimb, and elongated digits with an increased number of phalanges (hyperphalangy). In addition, some cetaceans exhibit a reduction in digit number.…

The forelimb of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) has been radically modified during the limb-to-flipper transition. Extant cetaceans have a soft tissue flipper encasing the manus and acting as a hydrofoil to generate lift. The…

The architectural arrangement of the fibers within a muscle has a significant impact on how a muscle functions. Recent work on primate jaw-muscle architecture demonstrates significant associations with dietary variation and feeding behaviors. In this…

We describe the bony and cartilaginous structures of five fetal skulls of Stenella attenuata (pantropical spotted dolphin) specimens. The specimens represent early fetal life as suggested by the presence of rostral tactile hairs and the beginnings of…
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