Browse Items (30 total)

Bats are the only mammals to have achieved powered flight. A key innovation allowing for bats to conquer the skies was a forelimb modified into a flexible wing. The wing bones of bats are exceptionally long and dynamically bend with wingbeats. Bone …

Solid organ transplantation in children and adolescents provides many benefits through improving critical organ function, including better growth, development, cardiovascular status, and quality of life. Unfortunately, bone status may be adversely…

Bowhead whales are among the longest-lived mammals with an extreme lifespan of about 211 years. During the first 25 years of their lives, rib bones increase in mineral density and the medulla transitions from compact to trabecular bone. Molecular …

BACKGROUND: mir-RNAs play a role in regulating bone homeostasis. In this study we assessed the functional role of mir-RNA 150 in bone homeostasis. We also assess the effects of miR-150 deficiency on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and…

Urinary stone disease (USD) is affecting a greater number of children and low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased skeletal fractures have been demonstrated in stone patients; however, the mechanism(s) driving bone disease remain unclear. This…

Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO) technology, we blocked leptin A or leptin receptor expression in embryonic zebrafish, and analyzed consequences of leptin A knock-down on fish development. Embryos injected with leptin A or leptin…

Collagen is a well known protein component that has the capacity to mineralize in a variety of vertebrate tissues. In its mineralized form, collagen potentially can be utilized as a biomimetic material for a variety of applications, including, for…

Certain avian tendons are known to mineralize normally in a gender-related manner. These tendons have unique properties, as well as several features common to calcifying cartilage and bone in other vertebrate species. In cartilage and bone,…

To understand further the role of gravity in osteoblast attachment, osteoblasts were subjected to hypergravity conditions in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy of all confluent coverslips from FPA units show that the number of attached osteoblasts…

Substrate attachment is crucial for normal growth and differentiation of many cell types. To better understand the role of gravity in osteoblast attachment and growth in vitro, 17-day-old embryonic chick calvarial osteoblasts were subjected to…

Although all genera of Callitrichinae feed on tree exudates, marmosets (Callithrix and Cebuella) use specialized anterior teeth to gouge holes in trees and actively stimulate exudate flow. Behavioral studies demonstrate that marmosets use large jaw…

COL27A1 is a member of the collagen fibrillar gene family and is expressed in cartilaginous tissues including the anlage of endochondral bone. To begin to understand its role in skeletogenesis, the temporospatial distributions of its RNA message and…

Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) has been used extensively to characterize the composition and orientation of macromolecules in thin tissue sections. Earlier and current studies of normal and polarized FT-IRIS data have…

Cortical mineralization of long bones was studied in collagen alpha2(I)-deficient mice (oim) used as a model for human osteogenesis imperfecta. Aspects of the age development of the mice were characterized by combining nanometer- to micrometer-scale…

Study design: Case reports and survey of literature. Objective: Case reports of two women with tuberculosis (TB) of the spine (Pott's disease) presenting with severe back pain and diagnosed as compression fracture are described. Physicians should…

We present a three-dimensional mineralizing model based on a hollow fiber bioreactor (HFBR) inoculated with primary osteoblasts isolated from embryonic chick calvaria. Using non-invasive magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), the growth and development…

Only two cases of beta(2)-microglobulin amyloid tumors involving the buttocks have been reported in the world literature. We report a case of bilateral buttock amyloid tumors with associated carpal tunnel syndrome and pathologic fracture involving…

Interbody cage devices, used to assist interbody fusion, are rapidly gaining popularity in the surgical management of chronic low back pain. This update provides a structural classification of commonly used devices and assesses them against a set of…

Several types of pathological bony overgrowth are known from various dinosaur taxa but, except for stress fractures, are rarely reported from appendicular elements. Herein we describe pathological manual and pedal phalanges of a camarasaurid sauropod…

The organization of collagen fibrils differs in woven bone and lamellar bone, and it reflects certain aspects of the nature of the mineral crystals associated with them. In order to investigate the morphology and distribution of apatite crystals in…

Animals store elastic energy in leg and foot tendons during locomotion. In the turkey, much of the locomotive force generated by the gastrocnemius muscle is stored as elastic energy during tendon deformation. Little energy storage occurs within the…

Allen's Rule documents a century-old biological observation that strong positive correlations exist among latitude, ambient temperature, and limb length in mammals. Although genetic selection for thermoregulatory adaptation is frequently presumed to…

Tympanic bullae and baleen plates from bowhead whales of the Western Arctic population were examined. Growth layer groups (GLGs) in the involucrum of the tympanic bone were used to estimate age of the whales, and compared to stable isotope signatures…

The relationship between mandibular form and biomechanical function is a topic of significant interest to morphologists and paleontologists alike. Several previous studies have examined the morphology of the mandible in gouging and nongouging…

Paravertebral osseous masses in reptiles have been attributed to Paget's disease on the basis of histology. Histologically recognized mosaic architecture and cement lines, however, lack specificity. A Varanus dorianus with this condition was…

One of the intents of tissue engineering is to fabricate biological materials for the augmentation or replacement of impaired, damaged, or diseased human tissue. In this context, novel models of the human phalanges have been developed recently…

A three-dimensional (3D) mineralizing culture system using hollow fiber bioreactors has been developed to study the early stages of endochondral ossification by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy. Chondrocytes harvested from the…

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