Browse Items (405 total)

Bowhead whales are some of the largest animals that occupy the Arctic Circle. Despite the challenges of living and giving birth in icy waters, having huge blubber stores, eating a fat-rich diet, and undergoing arduous migrations, bowheads achieved…

In the late 1980s, annual carbon isotope cycles in the baleen plates of bowhead whales formed the basis of the first effective means of estimating bowhead age. However, the baleen aging method could only be used for aging subadult whales less than…

Bering–Chukchi–Beaufort Sea bowhead whales are born at about 4.2m in length and 1000kg, in lead systems along the NW Alaskan coast. Bowheads in the other northern stocks are also born in ice-covered seas. Maximum body lengths (standard measure) can…

The skull of the bowhead whale is composed of all the bones commonly found in mammals, although the shape of these bones is far from ordinary. Features related to feeding dominate the skull: there are no teeth, and the rostrum is long and curved,…

An understanding of the functional morphology of the bowhead whale continues to have significance for population management. This chapter first examines the anatomical features of the bowhead whale reproductive system, with an emphasis on the female.…

The commercial hunt of the four stocks of bowhead whales by the nations of Europe and North America commenced in 1540 and came to an effective end at the start of World War I. At that time, all four stocks had been driven to near extinction. Whalers…

We discuss the evolution, phylogenetic relations to right whales, and geographical distribution of bowhead whales. We summarize its relations to humans, including whaling by indigenous and European whalers, conservation efforts, and modern challenges…

The sensory biology of bowhead whales reflects features both related to their origin from land mammals and adaptations to their current environment, polar seas. There is anatomical and genomic evidence that bowheads have a sense of smell. Their sense…

The prenatal development of bowhead whales is poorly known, and no complete ontogenetic series exist. However, the available embryos and fetuses elucidate aspects of the development of the species, as well as that of all of mysticetes in general, and…

The postcranial skeleton of bowhead whales was described in detail more than 100 years ago. The musculature of bowheads has not been studied in detail but matches that of other mysticetes in general features. In this chapter, we focus on some aspects…

The order Cetacea (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls (even‐toed ungulates) around 50 million years ago. This transition from land to water occurred over an evolutionarily short period of less than 10 million years…

Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Nitric oxide (NO) has been established as one of the major inflammatory mediators in OA and drives many pathological changes during the…

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chondrocyte death are important contributors to the development and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we determined the expression and role of Parkin in the clearance of…

Mitochondrial function is impaired in osteoarthritis (OA) but its impact on cartilage catabolism is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced activation of catabolic response in …

OBJECTIVE: Lysosomes are the major catabolic organelle of the cell and regulate the macromolecular and organelle turnover and programmed cell death. Here, we investigated the lysosome dysfunction in cartilage and its role in chondrocytes apoptosis…

OBJECTIVE: Cytokine expression is tightly regulated post-transcriptionally but high levels of IL-6 in osteoarthritis (OA) indicate disruption of regulatory mechanisms. ZCCHC6 enzyme is implicated in post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory…

Objective: Cytokine expression is tightly regulated posttranscriptionally, but high levels of interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) indicate that regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in this disorder. The enzyme ZCCHC6 (zinc‐finger…

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint degenerative disease leading to irreversible structural and functional changes in the joint and is a major cause of disability and reduced life expectancy in ageing population. Despite the high …

Immunofluorescence staining is a widely used and powerful tool for the visualization and colocalization of two or more proteins and/or cellular organelles. For colocalization studies in fixed cells, one target protein/organelle is immunostained and…

The evolutionary success of mammals is rooted in their high metabolic rate. A high metabolic rate is sustainable thanks to efficient food processing and that in turn is facilitated by precise occlusion of the teeth and the acquisition of rhythmic…

Ageing is a leading risk factor predisposing cartilage to osteoarthritis. However, little research has been conducted on the effect of ageing on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). RNA from young and old chondrocytes from …
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