Browse Items (405 total)

The cetacean visual system is a product of selection pressures favoring underwater vision, yet relatively little is known about it across taxa. Previous studies report several mutations in the opsin genetic sequence in cetaceans, suggesting the …

Nearly all living artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) possess a derived cranial arterial pattern that is highly distinctive from most other mammals. Foremost among a suite of atypical arterial configurations is the functional and anatomical…

Few studies exist of the bowhead whale brain and virtually nothing is known about its cortical cytoarchitecture or how it compares to other cetaceans. Bowhead whales are one of the least encephalized cetaceans and occupy a basal phylogenetic position…

Few studies exist of the bowhead whale brain and virtually nothing is known about its cortical cytoarchitecture or how it compares to other cetaceans. Bowhead whales are one of the least encephalized cetaceans and occupy a basal phylogenetic position…

BACKGROUND: The lake deposits of the informal Ruby Paper Shale unit, part of the Renova Formation of Montana, have yielded abundant plant fossils that document Late Eocene - Early Oligocene global cooling in western North America. A nearly complete…

BACKGROUND: The lake deposits of the informal Ruby Paper Shale unit, part of the Renova Formation of Montana, have yielded abundant plant fossils that document Late Eocene - Early Oligocene global cooling in western North America. A nearly complete…

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder hallmarked by a loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Accurate recapitulation of the PD movement phenotype in animal models of the disease is critical for understanding…

Located in the midbrain, the inferior colliculus (IC) is the hub of the central auditory system. Although the IC plays important roles in speech processing, sound localization, and other auditory computations, the organization of the IC…

Trafficking protein particle complex 9 (TRAPPC9) is a major subunit of the TRAPPII complex. TRAPPC9 has been reported to bind nuclear factor κB kinase subunit β (IKKβ) and NF-kB-inducing kinase (NIK) where it plays a role in the canonical and…

PURPOSE: Transposable elements are known to remodel gene structure and provide a known source of genetic variation. Retrotransposon gag-like-3 (RTL3) is a mammalian retrotransposon-derived transcript (MART) whose function in the skeletal tissue is …

OBJECTIVES: Laboratory studies have yielded important insights into primate locomotor mechanics. Nevertheless, laboratory studies fail to capture the range of ecological and structural variation encountered by free-ranging primates. We present…

The paternally imprinted neuronatin (NNAT) gene has been identified as a target of aberrant epigenetic silencing in diverse cancers, but no association with pediatric bone cancers has been reported to date. In screening childhood cancers, we…

KEY POINTS: Binaural excitatory inputs to coincidence detection neurons in nucleus laminaris (NL) play essential roles in interaural time difference coding for sound localization. Here, we show that the two excitatory inputs are physiologically…

The acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is subject to substantial variability. This inherent variability consequently shapes the conclusions drawn from gap-induced prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GPIAS) assessments. Recent studies have…

Tinnitus is a maladaptive neuropathic condition that develops in humans and laboratory animals following auditory insult. In our previous study we demonstrated that sound exposure leads to development of behavioral evidence of tinnitus in a sample of…

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the foramina of the cribriform plate which transmit cranial nerve I decrease in size with age, but this finding has never been supported with quantitative data. It has also been observed that olfactory function…

Although chronic neuropathic pain disorders are more prevalent in the senescent population, little is known about how the aging process alters the thermal hyperalgesic sensitivity to peripheral nerve injury. In this study, neuropathic pain was…

The inferior colliculus (IC) integrates ascending auditory input from the lower brainstem and descending input from the auditory cortex. Understanding how IC cells integrate these inputs requires identification of their synaptic arrangements. We…

Crocodylians evolved some of the most characteristic skulls of the animal kingdom with specializations for semiaquatic and ambush lifestyles, resulting in a feeding apparatus capable of tolerating high biomechanical loads and bite forces and a head…

Despite the importance that concepts of arboreal stability have in theories of primate locomotor evolution, we currently lack measures of balance performance during primate locomotion. We provide the first quantitative data on locomotor stability in…

Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in…
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