Browse Items (313 total)

Cardiac fibrosis caused by adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction can eventually lead to heart failure. Although the role of soluble factors such as TGF-beta is well studied in cardiac fibrosis following myocardial injury, the…

Nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) are important regulators of bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. Here, we show that global Fxr (-/-) Shp(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice are refractory to weight…

Asthma is characterized by pathological airway remodeling resulting from persistent myofibroblast activation. Although transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), mechanical signals, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in fibroblast…

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide mortality. Intravital microscopy has provided unprecedented insight into leukocyte biology by enabling the visualization of dynamic responses within living organ systems at the cell-scale. The…

Background Bile acid‐CoA: amino acid N‐acyltransferase (BAAT) is the enzyme which is responsible for bile acid (BA) conjugation with glycine and taurine in the final step of bile acid synthesis in humans. More than 98% of BA conjugation occurs in the…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiencies (PDCDs) and other mitochondrial disorders (MtDs) can (a) result in congenital lactic acidosis with elevations of blood alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro), (b) lead to decreased ATP production, and (c) …

The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the roles of alcohol (ethanol) and related compounds in promoting cancer and inflammatory injury in many tissues. Long-term chronic heavy alcohol exposure is known to increase the chances of…

The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is a mechanosensor in endothelial cells (EC) that regulates cyclic strain-induced reorientation and flow-mediated nitric oxide production. We have recently demonstrated that TRPV4…

The ability of retroviruses (RVs) to cause neurodegeneration is critically dependent upon two activities of the envelope protein (Env). First, Env facilitates viral genome delivery to CNS target cells through receptor binding and membrane fusion.…

Introduction Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as the “Broken Heart Syndrome” or “Apical Ballooning Syndrome is defined by its characteristic anomaly: when the heart contracts during systole, the apex of the heart dilates as the base of the heart…

Background A serious consequence of acute myocardial ischemia‐reperfusion injury (acute I/R) is oxidative damage which causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Such I/R‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction is observed as impaired state‐3 respiration and…

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as an important mechanism of disease and redox signaling in the cardiovascular system. Under basal or pathological conditions, electron leakage for ROS production is primarily mediated by the…

A cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene containing 8 kb of the 5'-flanking region and 5 kb of the transcription region which covers exons 1 to 5 was isolated from a rat genomic library. The 2015 bp nucleotide sequence 5'-upstream from the start codon…

This commentary highlights the article by Jena et al that studied the complex interplay between diet, bile acids, sex, and dysbiosis in hepatic steatosis and inflammation.

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