Browse Items (60 total)

The number of refugees and asylum seekers throughout the world continues to increase, leading to increasing challenges in meeting healthcare needs of these individuals. Women's antenatal health is of particular concern due to their vulnerability to…

All mammals undergo weaning from milk to solid food. This process requires substantial changes to mammalian oropharyngeal function. The coordination of swallowing and respiration is a crucial component of maintaining airway function throughout…

The inferior colliculus processes nearly all ascending auditory information. Most collicular cells respond to sound, and for a majority of these cells, the responses can be modulated by acetylcholine (ACh). The cholinergic effects are varied and, for…

Objectives: Primate diagonal sequence (DS) gaits are often argued to be an adaptation for moving and foraging in the fine‐branch niche; however, existing data have come predominantly from laboratory studies that are limited in taxonomic breadth and…

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a normal physiological process. However, deregulation of angiogenesis can lead to pathological states such as cancer, that is characterized by hyper‐permeable and tortuous…

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is highly enriched in the liver, but its role in the progression of liver steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of gain or…

Rodents have at least five carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) genes, whereas there is only one CES1 gene in humans, raising the question as to whether human CES1 and mouse Ces1 genes share the same functions. In this study, we investigate the role of human…

Human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) has triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) activities and plays an important role in lipolysis. In this study, we aim to determine the role of human CES2 in the progression or reversal of steatohepatitis in diet-induced or …

The influence of substrate compliance on gait mechanics has received little attention in previous studies of primate locomotion. Using high-speed video, we investigated how free-ranging platyrrhines in lowland Amazonian Ecuador adjust gait kinematics…

Nephrotoxicity is a major side effect of cisplatin (CP)- and platinum-related chemotherapy, and inflammation contributes to disease pathogenesis. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine associated with inflammation. Here, we investigated the…

Within the zebra finch song system, robust sex differences exist that enable singing behavior in males, but not females. Estradiol is a potent contributor to this process, but how and through which receptor(s) it acts is not clear. Historically,…

The translator and I arrived at a modest home in a neighborhood just outside of downtown. We were halfway through the interview process – at perhaps number 20 or 21 of the 45 we had planned to conduct. The neighborhood and home were much like the…

Bowhead whales are among the longest-lived mammals with an extreme lifespan of about 211 years. During the first 25 years of their lives, rib bones increase in mineral density and the medulla transitions from compact to trabecular bone. Molecular …

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential…

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential …

Food texture preference and product acceptance are hypothesized to be influenced by mouth behavior. Recent work identified four mouth behavior (MB) groups that describe most consumers in the United States: Chewers, Crunchers, Smooshers, and Suckers.…

Understanding the interactions between neural and musculoskeletal systems is key to identifying mechanisms of functional failure. Mammalian swallowing is a complex, poorly understood motor process. Lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a sensory…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

The ability of humans and animals to localize the source of a sound in a complex acoustic environment facilitates communication and survival. Two cues are used for sound localization at horizontal planes, interaural time and level differences (ITD …

Pectoral and pelvic girdle rotations play a substantial role in enhancing stride length across diverse tetrapod lineages. However, the pectoral and pelvic girdle attach the limbs to the body in different ways and may exhibit dissimilar functions,…

BACKGROUND: The formation of a bolus of food is critical for proper feeding function, and there is substantial variation in the size and shape of a bolus prior to a swallow. Preterm infants exhibit decreased abilities to acquire and process food, but…

Well‐developed coronary collaterals prove to be highly beneficial in salvaging ischemic myocardium, preserving cardiac function, and improving patient outcome post‐occlusion. However, this process of coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…
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