Tissue-Specific Proteomics Analysis of Anti-COVID-19 Nucleoside and Nucleotide Prodrug-Activating Enzymes Provides Insights into the Optimization of Prodrug Design and Pharmacotherapy Strategy.

Title

Tissue-Specific Proteomics Analysis of Anti-COVID-19 Nucleoside and Nucleotide Prodrug-Activating Enzymes Provides Insights into the Optimization of Prodrug Design and Pharmacotherapy Strategy.

Creator

Li J; Liu S; Shi J; Wang X; Xue Y; Zhu H-J

Publisher

Acs Pharmacology & Translational Science

Date

2021
2021-04-01

Description

Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs are an essential class of antivirals for COVID-19 treatment. Several nucleoside/nucleotide analogs have shown promising effects against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro ; however, their in vivo efficacy is limited. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogs are often formed as ester prodrugs to improve pharmacokinetics (PK) performance. After entering cells, the prodrugs undergo several enzymatic metabolism steps to form the active metabolite triphosphate nucleoside (TP-Nuc); prodrug activation is therefore associated with the abundance and catalytic activity of the corresponding activating enzymes. Having the activation of nucleoside/nucleotide prodrugs occur at the target site of action, such as the lung, is critical for anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy. Herein, we conducted an absolute quantitative proteomics study to determine the expression of relevant activating enzymes in human organs related to the PK and antiviral efficacy of nucleoside/nucleotide prodrugs, including the lung, liver, intestine, and kidney. The protein levels of prodrug-activating enzymes differed significantly among the tissues. Using catalytic activity values reported previously for individual enzymes, we calculated prodrug activation profiles in these tissues. The prodrugs evaluated in this study include nine McGuigan phosphoramidate prodrugs, two cyclic monophosphate prodrugs, two l-valyl ester prodrugs, and one octanoate prodrug. Our analysis showed that most orally administered nucleoside/nucleotide prodrugs were primarily activated in the liver, suggesting that parenteral delivery routes such as inhalation and intravenous infusion could be better options when these antiviral prodrugs are used to treat COVID-19. The results also indicated that the l-valyl ester prodrug design can plausibly improve drug bioavailability and enhance effects against SARS-CoV-2 intestinal infections. This study further revealed that an octanoate prodrug could provide a long-acting antiviral effect targeting SARS-CoV-2 infections in the lung. Finally, our molecular docking analysis suggested several prodrug forms of favipiravir and GS-441524 that are likely to exhibit favorable PK features over existing prodrug forms. In sum, this study revealed the activation mechanisms of various nucleoside/nucleotide prodrugs relevant to COVID-19 treatment in different organs and shed light on the development of more effective anti-COVID-19 prodrugs. (© 2021 American Chemical Society.)

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Format

journalArticle

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Pages

870-887

Issue

2

Volume

4

ISSN

2575-9108

NEOMED College

NEOMED College of Pharmacy

NEOMED Department

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Update Year & Number

May 2021 List

Citation

Li J; Liu S; Shi J; Wang X; Xue Y; Zhu H-J, “Tissue-Specific Proteomics Analysis of Anti-COVID-19 Nucleoside and Nucleotide Prodrug-Activating Enzymes Provides Insights into the Optimization of Prodrug Design and Pharmacotherapy Strategy.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed June 28, 2022, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/11688.

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