Metapodial or Phalanx? An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective on the Homology of the First Ray's Proximal Segment

Title

Metapodial or Phalanx? An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective on the Homology of the First Ray's Proximal Segment

Creator

Reno P L; Horton W E; Lovejoy C O

Publisher

Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B-Molecular and Developmental Evolution

Date

2013
2013-07

Description

The first mammalian metapodial (MP1) has periodically been argued to actually be a phalanx, because the first ray has one less element than the four posterior rays, and because the MP1 growth plate is proximal like those of all phalanges, rather than distal as in metapodials 2-5. However, growth plates are formed at both ends in non-therian tetrapod metapodials, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that growth plate loss is a therian synapomorphy that postdates the establishment of the mammalian phalangeal formula. These data, along with results of developmental and morphological studies, suggest that the MP1 is not a phalanx. The singular, proximal growth plates in MPs 2-5 are likely to be an adaptation to dynamic erect quadrupedal gait which was characterized by conversion of the posterior metapodials into rigid struts with the carpus/tarsus. While the adaptive significance of the reversed ossification of MP1 is less clear, we present three functional/developmental hypotheses. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:276-285, 2013. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Subject

appendicular skeleton; Developmental Biology; digit development; Evolutionary Biology; formation; gene regulation; growth-plate; joint; limb bud; mammals; postnatal skeletal ontogeny; sonic-hedgehog; triphalangeal thumb; Zoology

Identifier

Format

Journal Article

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Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Pages

276-285

Issue

5

Volume

320B

Citation

Reno P L; Horton W E; Lovejoy C O, “Metapodial or Phalanx? An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective on the Homology of the First Ray's Proximal Segment,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed January 30, 2023, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/6863.

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