External fixation: how to make it work.


External fixation: how to make it work.


Ziran Bruce H; Smith Wade R; Anglen Jeffrey O; Tornetta Iii Paul


Instructional course lectures




The external fixator has been in use for more than a century. Wutzer (1789-1863) used pins and an interconnecting rod-and-clamp system. Parkhill (1897) and Lambotte (1900) used devices that were unilateral with four pins and a bar-clamp system. By 1960, Vidal and Hoffmann had popularized the use of an external fixator to treat open fractures and infected pseudarthroses. The complications associated with the use of external fixation in the late 20th century were predominantly caused by a lack of understanding of the principles of application, the principles of fracture healing with external fixation, and old technology. Its use was reserved for the most severe injuries and for cases complicated by infection. Thus, pin problems, nonunions, and malunions were common. Better technology and understanding have since allowed for greater versatility and better outcomes. Simultaneous with developments in the Western world, Ilizarov developed the principles of external fixation with use of ring and wire fixation. It was not until the late 1980s and early 1990s, when more interaction and exchange between the West and East (Russia) became possible, and with the help of Italians who embraced the philosophy of external fixation, that the use of external fixation was proven to be successful. Several variations of external fixation have been developed, and its use is now widespread. However, in the United States, all but a minority of surgeons still have substantial apprehension about the use of external fixation.


Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Equipment Design; Prosthesis Design; Fracture Healing; *External Fixators; Fracture Fixation/*methods; *Orthopedic Fixation Devices; Fracture Fixation/*instrumentation; Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/instrumentation; Fractures; Bone/*surgery; Orthopedic Fixation Devices; Fracture Fixation – Methods


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Ziran Bruce H; Smith Wade R; Anglen Jeffrey O; Tornetta Iii Paul, “External fixation: how to make it work.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed July 25, 2024, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/5046.