Browse Items (8356 total)

The basicranium of anthropoid primates is more flexed than in lemurs and lorises (strepsirrhines), which has implications for orientation of facial growth. Differential growth among cranial synchondroses is one suggested mechanism for variation in…

Architectural characteristics of skeletal muscles are important determinants of whole muscle function. Fiber length (Lf) and physiologic cross‐sectional area (PCSA) are correlated with skeletal muscle excursion/contraction velocity and force,…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

It has been hypothesized that the human sphenoid bone is uniquely truncated, which in turn contributes to a reduction of forward midfacial growth. If so, the perinatal fusion of the intrasphenoidal synchondrosis (ISS) in humans may contribute to…

Most mammalian pisiforms are large, elongated carpal bones with two ossification centers and an associated growth plate, similar to the calcaneus in the ankle. Short pisiforms are rare among mammals, but can be found in humans, orangutans (Primates:…

Feeding in infant mammals requires the precise coordination of multiple oropharyngeal structures, including the palatopharyngeal arch. During a typical swallow, the activity of the palatopharyngeus muscle produces constriction of the arches and…

Vascular aging is highly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence is one of its key contributors. However, intracellular and extracellular signaling and communication of senescent VSMCs…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…

The order Cetacea (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls (even‐toed ungulates) around 50 million years ago. This transition from land to water occurred over an evolutionarily short period of less than 10 million years…

Lymphatic anomalies (LA) are rare conditions characterized by abnormal vascularization of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis). Gorham‐Stout Disease (GSD) is an aggressive type of LA which invades cortical bone and makes it “disappear”. There is…

Voltage‐gated potassium (Kv) channels expressed in the coronary vasculature play a pivotal role in coupling oxygen delivery with myocardial metabolic demand. Despite their importance in maintaining adequate perfusion to support proper cardiac…

Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, hallmark of SMC phenotypic switching central to the evolution of atherosclerosis, is profoundly enhanced in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia, characteristic of diabetes, increases…

Cytochrome P450 IV (CYP4) are a family of omega‐hydroxylase enzymes. We have previously shown that these fatty acid omega‐hydroxylases function in the hydroxylation of various chain‐length saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the endoplasmic…

Well‐developed coronary collaterals prove to be highly beneficial in salvaging ischemic myocardium, preserving cardiac function, and improving patient outcome post‐occlusion. However, this process of coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in…

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of anomalies including type 2 diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Patients with MetS are 1.5 times more likely to develop late‐onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with impaired glucose…

In the United States, coronary heart diseases (CHD) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. A well‐developed coronary collateral circulation ameliorates the consequences of CHD, reducing the incidence of sudden death and infarct sizes…

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a normal physiological process. However, deregulation of angiogenesis can lead to pathological states such as cancer, that is characterized by hyper‐permeable and tortuous…

Introduction Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cardiovascular complication in patients with diabetes and is defined as ventricular dysfunction (in diabetes) independent of coronary artery disease. In this study, we define a novel role for the…

Over the last 50 years progress has been made in treating childhood and adult solid and hematological tumors. One commonly used chemotherapeutic agent is doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, which was discovered in early 1960s.…

Background A serious consequence of acute myocardial ischemia‐reperfusion injury (acute I/R) is oxidative damage which causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Such I/R‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction is observed as impaired state‐3 respiration and…

Introduction Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as the “Broken Heart Syndrome” or “Apical Ballooning Syndrome is defined by its characteristic anomaly: when the heart contracts during systole, the apex of the heart dilates as the base of the heart…

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide behind Alzheimer’s disease. One prominent feature of PD is the marked loss of dopaminergic and motor dysfunction. Currently, there are no therapies to…

Background Bile acid‐CoA: amino acid N‐acyltransferase (BAAT) is the enzyme which is responsible for bile acid (BA) conjugation with glycine and taurine in the final step of bile acid synthesis in humans. More than 98% of BA conjugation occurs in the…

CASE: A 32-year-old pregnant woman presented with new wrist pain after a fall. She had undergone surgical repair to the same wrist 6 years previously for a distal radius fracture. At that time, there was no evidence of a bone lesion. Current …

The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to produce a white paper on noncardiac CEUS in North America. The panel met in Chicago, Illinois, on October 24 and 25, 2017. The …

In mice, the caller's production of social vocalizations has been extensively studied but the effect of these vocalizations on the listener is less understood, with playback studies to date utilizing one vocalization category or listeners of one sex.…

Objective: In individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA), self-reported physical function is poorer in African Americans than in whites, but whether this difference holds true for objective assessments is unclear. The purpose of this study was to…

ABSTRACT: Much of COVID-19 disease can be attributed to the stable structure of the envelope, which facilitates its transmission; the spike protein and its receptor which determine which tissues get infected and are susceptible to viral and immune…

In adults with chronic liver diseases, ultrasound and magnetic resonance shear wave elastography (SWE) can replace liver biopsy in several clinical scenarios. Several guidelines on the use of ultrasound SWE for the adult population have been…

PRéCIS:: Small but significant decreases in OCTA-measured circumpapillary capillary density were observed in healthy eyes dilated with 2.5% phenylephrine/0.5% tropicamide. Though likely clinically insignificant, ophthalmologists should consider these…

Objective: To validate the Martini staging system for postoperative rectourethral fistula (RUF) utilizing data from previous studies to determine whether it can accurately predict postoperative success rate.; Methods: A systematic search of…

Screening for breast cancer reduces breast cancer-related mortality and earlier detection facilitates less aggressive treatment. Unfortunately, current screening modalities are imperfect, suffering from limited sensitivity and high false-positive…

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential…

Medicine has a six-fold role to play in war; (1) Selection of suitable military personnel, (2) To protect against disease, (3) To give medical attention and treatment to those who are ill and injured, (4) To assist in the rehabilitation of the…

Purpose: Radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy is considered standard of care in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Surgical ligation and interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC), however, is sometimes necessary when the tumor…

Kidney replacement therapy(KRT) is a common supportive treatment for renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury. However, critically ill or immunosuppressed patients with renal dysfunction often have dysfunction in other organs as well. To…

On October 24, 2017, in Chicago, the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to arrive at a white paper regarding the use of CEUS in noncardiac applications in North America.…
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