Bile acid receptors FXR and TGR5 signaling in fatty liver diseases and therapy.


Bile acid receptors FXR and TGR5 signaling in fatty liver diseases and therapy.


Chiang John Y L; Ferrell Jessica M


American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology




Bile acid synthesis is the most significant pathway for catabolism of cholesterol and for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids are physiological detergents that absorb, distribute, metabolize, and excrete nutrients, drugs, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signal molecules and metabolic integrators that activate nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5; i.e., G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1) to regulate glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the transformation of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids, in the regulation of bile acid synthesis to maintain composition within the bile acid pool, and in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis to prevent hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. High-fat and high-calorie diets, dysbiosis, alcohol, drugs, and disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms cause metabolic diseases, including alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Bile acid-based drugs that target bile acid receptors are being developed for the treatment of metabolic diseases of the liver.


bile acid metabolism; liver diseases; farnesoid X receptor; alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty; bile acid therapies; Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5


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Chiang John Y L; Ferrell Jessica M, “Bile acid receptors FXR and TGR5 signaling in fatty liver diseases and therapy.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed November 29, 2022,

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