Browse Items (2377 total)

We discuss the evolution, phylogenetic relations to right whales, and geographical distribution of bowhead whales. We summarize its relations to humans, including whaling by indigenous and European whalers, conservation efforts, and modern challenges…

Indigenous whalers know a great deal about the habits and environment of bowhead whales. That knowledge is essential for safe and effective hunting and has also been invaluable to scientific research and management of bowheads. Studies in Chukotka,…

The commercial hunt of the four stocks of bowhead whales by the nations of Europe and North America commenced in 1540 and came to an effective end at the start of World War I. At that time, all four stocks had been driven to near extinction. Whalers…

In the late 1980s, annual carbon isotope cycles in the baleen plates of bowhead whales formed the basis of the first effective means of estimating bowhead age. However, the baleen aging method could only be used for aging subadult whales less than…

The sensory biology of bowhead whales reflects features both related to their origin from land mammals and adaptations to their current environment, polar seas. There is anatomical and genomic evidence that bowheads have a sense of smell. Their sense…

An understanding of the functional morphology of the bowhead whale continues to have significance for population management. This chapter first examines the anatomical features of the bowhead whale reproductive system, with an emphasis on the female.…

The postcranial skeleton of bowhead whales was described in detail more than 100 years ago. The musculature of bowheads has not been studied in detail but matches that of other mysticetes in general features. In this chapter, we focus on some aspects…

The skull of the bowhead whale is composed of all the bones commonly found in mammals, although the shape of these bones is far from ordinary. Features related to feeding dominate the skull: there are no teeth, and the rostrum is long and curved,…

The prenatal development of bowhead whales is poorly known, and no complete ontogenetic series exist. However, the available embryos and fetuses elucidate aspects of the development of the species, as well as that of all of mysticetes in general, and…

Bering–Chukchi–Beaufort Sea bowhead whales are born at about 4.2m in length and 1000kg, in lead systems along the NW Alaskan coast. Bowheads in the other northern stocks are also born in ice-covered seas. Maximum body lengths (standard measure) can…

During the land-to-water transition in the Eocene epoch, the cetacean skeleton underwent modifications to accommodate life in the seas. These changes are well-documented in the fossil record. The forelimb transformed from a weight-bearing limb with…

This paper describes a novel intelligent analysis technique based upon bivariate Markov model that integrates morphological and temporal features with a rule-based interval analysis of ECG signals to localize and accurately classify the premature…

Research is the search for new, generalisable knowledge (Truth in the Universe) to improve our collective ability to correctly diagnose and treat human suffering. In the formal sense, medical research implies both creating new knowledge, and also…

The specialty of Emergency Medicine continues to expand and mature worldwide. As a relatively new specialty, the body of research that underpins patient management in the emergency department (ED) setting needs to be expanded for optimum patient…

Clear and precise writing is a vital skill for healthcare providers and those involved in global emergency care research. It allows one to publish in scientific literature and present oral and written summaries of their work. However, writing skills…

Presenting research at a conference is an opportunity to disseminate the findings, network with other researchers, and to develop your academic track record. Although every conference will have some local differences, there are common approaches to…

As emergency and acute care systems develop, the ability to broadly engage key stakeholders becomes paramount for success. Collaborating with emergency medicine clinicians as well as other providers who have already developed their specialties,…

Study design is critical to ensure that research questions are answered in an appropriate and rational manner for all aspects of health, but particularly in emergency care. Appropriate study design selection is one of the most critical decisions to…

Development of a successful research program can seem daunting when looked at from the starting line. It will take years if not decades to succeed and become sustainable. It requires local partnerships and mentoring; it mandates the establishment of…

Research is a fundamental component of the development of quality emergency care systems. Developing qualified professionals and programs to conduct emergency care research is essential to understanding epidemiology in low resource settings. This…

Effective critical appraisal of medical research requires training and practice. Evidence-based medicine provides a framework for standardised review of manuscripts of nearly any research design. Online resources and communities exist to provide free…

Objective The FUSION-X-US-II prototype was developed to combine 3D automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) and digital breast tomosynthesis in a single device. We evaluated the performance of ABUS and tomosynthesis in a single examination in a clinical…

OBJECTIVE: Emergency physicians routinely encounter stressful clinical situations, including treating victims of crime, violence, and trauma; facing the deaths of patients; and delivering bad news. During a pandemic, stress may be increased for …

OBJECTIVE: Our investigation compared throughput metrics and utilization measures for freestanding emergency departments (FSEDs) versus hospital-based emergency departments (HBEDs) of similar volumes in the United States. METHODS: This study is a…

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of aspiration in previously studied female infant piglets after a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (uSLN) lesion. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) were…

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to urinary stone disease (USD) is rare in adults; AKI rates in children with USD may be higher, and emerging data links stones to chronic kidney disease (CKD) development in adults. Methods: This study is a …

Little is known about the functions of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs2/3) in the inferior colliculus (IC)-a midbrain structure that is a major integration region of the central auditory system. We investigated how these receptors…

Human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) has triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) activities and plays an important role in lipolysis. In this study, we aim to determine the role of human CES2 in the progression or reversal of steatohepatitis in diet-induced or …

OBJECTIVE: Hyperleptinemia, hallmark of obesity, is a putative pathophysiologic trigger for atherosclerosis. We previously reported a stimulatory effect of leptin on TSP-1 (thrombospondin-1) expression, a proatherogenic matricellular protein …

Solid organ transplantation in children and adolescents provides many benefits through improving critical organ function, including better growth, development, cardiovascular status, and quality of life. Unfortunately, bone status may be adversely…

BACKGROUND: Limited population-based data exists for the brainstem gliomas for children ages ≤19 years, which includes high-grade aggressively-growing tumors such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). We examined the overall incidence and …
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