Browse Items (66 total)

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a ubiquitously expressed polymodally activated ion channel. TRPV4 has been implicated in tumor progression; however, the cell-specific role of TRPV4 in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis…

Swallowing in mammals requires the precise coordination of multiple oropharyngeal structures, including the palatopharyngeal arch. During a typical swallow, the activity of the palatopharyngeus muscle produces pharyngeal shortening to assist in…

Human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) has triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) activities and plays an important role in lipolysis. In this study, we aim to determine the role of human CES2 in the progression or reversal of steatohepatitis in diet-induced or…

Infant birth weight affects neuromotor and biomechanical swallowing performance in infant pig models. Preterm infants are generally born low birth weight and suffer from delayed development and neuromotor deficits. These deficits include critical …

An increasing number of studies show that listeners often have difficulty hearing in situations with background noise, despite normal tuning curves in quiet. One potential source of this difficulty could be sensorineural changes in the auditory …

Activating transcription factor (ATF)3 is known to have an anti-inflammatory function, yet the role of hepatic ATF3 in lipoprotein metabolism or atherosclerosis remains unknown. Here we show that overexpression of human ATF3 in hepatocytes reduces…

Human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) has triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) activities and plays an important role in lipolysis. In this study, we aim to determine the role of human CES2 in the progression or reversal of steatohepatitis in diet-induced or …

The ability of humans and animals to localize the source of a sound in a complex acoustic environment facilitates communication and survival. Two cues are used for sound localization at horizontal planes, interaural time and level differences (ITD …

Mammalian infants must be able to integrate the acquisition, transport, and swallowing of food in order to effectively feed. Understanding how these processes are coordinated is critical, as they have differences in neural control and sensitivity…

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is highly enriched in the liver, but its role in the progression of liver steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of gain or…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…

Well‐developed coronary collaterals prove to be highly beneficial in salvaging ischemic myocardium, preserving cardiac function, and improving patient outcome post‐occlusion. However, this process of coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in…

In the United States, coronary heart diseases (CHD) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. A well‐developed coronary collateral circulation ameliorates the consequences of CHD, reducing the incidence of sudden death and infarct sizes…

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a normal physiological process. However, deregulation of angiogenesis can lead to pathological states such as cancer, that is characterized by hyper‐permeable and tortuous…

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential…

Understanding the interactions between neural and musculoskeletal systems is key to identifying mechanisms of functional failure. Mammalian swallowing is a complex, poorly understood motor process. Lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a sensory…

Bowhead whales are among the longest-lived mammals with an extreme lifespan of about 211 years. During the first 25 years of their lives, rib bones increase in mineral density and the medulla transitions from compact to trabecular bone. Molecular …

Ageing is a leading risk factor predisposing cartilage to osteoarthritis. However, little research has been conducted on the effect of ageing on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). RNA from young and old chondrocytes from …

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential …

The inferior colliculus processes nearly all ascending auditory information. Most collicular cells respond to sound, and for a majority of these cells, the responses can be modulated by acetylcholine (ACh). The cholinergic effects are varied and, for…

This is the first genome-wide association study with the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HDMP) to define the genetic landscape of the variation in the suprathreshold wave 1 amplitude of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) both pre- and post-noise…

The growing evidence has been tried to explain and characterize C1q/TNF- related proteins (CTRPs) family as the potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets of obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and…

Within the zebra finch song system, robust sex differences exist that enable singing behavior in males, but not females. Estradiol is a potent contributor to this process, but how and through which receptor(s) it acts is not clear. Historically,…

Movements of the hyoid and thyroid are critical for feeding. These structures are often assumed to move in synchrony, despite evidence that neurologically compromised populations exhibit altered kinematics. Preterm infants are widely considered to be…

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are novel regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. However, the expression profiles and their role in post-transcriptional gene regulation in chondrocytes is…

Rodents have at least five carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) genes, whereas there is only one CES1 gene in humans, raising the question as to whether human CES1 and mouse Ces1 genes share the same functions. In this study, we investigate the role of human…

All mammals undergo weaning from milk to solid food. This process requires substantial changes to mammalian oropharyngeal function. The coordination of swallowing and respiration is a crucial component of maintaining airway function throughout…

Nephrotoxicity is a major side effect of cisplatin (CP)- and platinum-related chemotherapy, and inflammation contributes to disease pathogenesis. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine associated with inflammation. Here, we investigated the…

Cardiac fibrosis caused by adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction can eventually lead to heart failure. Although the role of soluble factors such as TGF-beta is well studied in cardiac fibrosis following myocardial injury, the…

Aerodigestive coordination is critical for safe feeding in mammals, and failure to do so can result in aspiration. Using an infant pig model, we analyzed the impact of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lesion on aerodigestive coordination and swallow…

Swallowing is complex at anatomical, functional, and neurological levels. The connections among these levels are poorly understood, yet they underpin mechanisms of swallowing pathology. The complexity of swallowing physiology means that multiple…

Pectoral and pelvic girdle rotations play a substantial role in enhancing stride length across diverse tetrapod lineages. However, the pectoral and pelvic girdle attach the limbs to the body in different ways and may exhibit dissimilar functions,…

The translator and I arrived at a modest home in a neighborhood just outside of downtown. We were halfway through the interview process – at perhaps number 20 or 21 of the 45 we had planned to conduct. The neighborhood and home were much like the…

Wild primates encounter complex matrices of substrates that differ in size, orientation, height, and compliance, and often move on multiple, discontinuous substrates within a single bout of locomotion. Our current understanding of primate gait is…
Output Formats

atom, dcmes-xml, json, omeka-xml, rss2