Browse Items (58 total)

Mammalian infants must be able to integrate the acquisition, transport, and swallowing of food in order to effectively feed. Understanding how these processes are coordinated is critical, as they have differences in neural control and sensitivity…

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is highly enriched in the liver, but its role in the progression of liver steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of gain or…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…

Well‐developed coronary collaterals prove to be highly beneficial in salvaging ischemic myocardium, preserving cardiac function, and improving patient outcome post‐occlusion. However, this process of coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in…

In the United States, coronary heart diseases (CHD) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. A well‐developed coronary collateral circulation ameliorates the consequences of CHD, reducing the incidence of sudden death and infarct sizes…

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a normal physiological process. However, deregulation of angiogenesis can lead to pathological states such as cancer, that is characterized by hyper‐permeable and tortuous…

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential…

Understanding the interactions between neural and musculoskeletal systems is key to identifying mechanisms of functional failure. Mammalian swallowing is a complex, poorly understood motor process. Lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a sensory…

Bowhead whales are among the longest-lived mammals with an extreme lifespan of about 211 years. During the first 25 years of their lives, rib bones increase in mineral density and the medulla transitions from compact to trabecular bone. Molecular …

Ageing is a leading risk factor predisposing cartilage to osteoarthritis. However, little research has been conducted on the effect of ageing on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). RNA from young and old chondrocytes from …

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential …

The inferior colliculus processes nearly all ascending auditory information. Most collicular cells respond to sound, and for a majority of these cells, the responses can be modulated by acetylcholine (ACh). The cholinergic effects are varied and, for…

This is the first genome-wide association study with the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HDMP) to define the genetic landscape of the variation in the suprathreshold wave 1 amplitude of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) both pre- and post-noise…

The growing evidence has been tried to explain and characterize C1q/TNF- related proteins (CTRPs) family as the potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets of obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and…

Within the zebra finch song system, robust sex differences exist that enable singing behavior in males, but not females. Estradiol is a potent contributor to this process, but how and through which receptor(s) it acts is not clear. Historically,…

Movements of the hyoid and thyroid are critical for feeding. These structures are often assumed to move in synchrony, despite evidence that neurologically compromised populations exhibit altered kinematics. Preterm infants are widely considered to be…

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are novel regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. However, the expression profiles and their role in post-transcriptional gene regulation in chondrocytes is…

Rodents have at least five carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) genes, whereas there is only one CES1 gene in humans, raising the question as to whether human CES1 and mouse Ces1 genes share the same functions. In this study, we investigate the role of human…

All mammals undergo weaning from milk to solid food. This process requires substantial changes to mammalian oropharyngeal function. The coordination of swallowing and respiration is a crucial component of maintaining airway function throughout…

Nephrotoxicity is a major side effect of cisplatin (CP)- and platinum-related chemotherapy, and inflammation contributes to disease pathogenesis. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine associated with inflammation. Here, we investigated the…

Cardiac fibrosis caused by adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction can eventually lead to heart failure. Although the role of soluble factors such as TGF-beta is well studied in cardiac fibrosis following myocardial injury, the…

Aerodigestive coordination is critical for safe feeding in mammals, and failure to do so can result in aspiration. Using an infant pig model, we analyzed the impact of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lesion on aerodigestive coordination and swallow…

Swallowing is complex at anatomical, functional, and neurological levels. The connections among these levels are poorly understood, yet they underpin mechanisms of swallowing pathology. The complexity of swallowing physiology means that multiple…

Pectoral and pelvic girdle rotations play a substantial role in enhancing stride length across diverse tetrapod lineages. However, the pectoral and pelvic girdle attach the limbs to the body in different ways and may exhibit dissimilar functions,…

The translator and I arrived at a modest home in a neighborhood just outside of downtown. We were halfway through the interview process – at perhaps number 20 or 21 of the 45 we had planned to conduct. The neighborhood and home were much like the…

Wild primates encounter complex matrices of substrates that differ in size, orientation, height, and compliance, and often move on multiple, discontinuous substrates within a single bout of locomotion. Our current understanding of primate gait is…

The number of refugees and asylum seekers throughout the world continues to increase, leading to increasing challenges in meeting healthcare needs of these individuals. Women's antenatal health is of particular concern due to their vulnerability to…

Objectives: Primate diagonal sequence (DS) gaits are often argued to be an adaptation for moving and foraging in the fine‐branch niche; however, existing data have come predominantly from laboratory studies that are limited in taxonomic breadth and…

BACKGROUND: The formation of a bolus of food is critical for proper feeding function, and there is substantial variation in the size and shape of a bolus prior to a swallow. Preterm infants exhibit decreased abilities to acquire and process food, but…

Food texture preference and product acceptance are hypothesized to be influenced by mouth behavior. Recent work identified four mouth behavior (MB) groups that describe most consumers in the United States: Chewers, Crunchers, Smooshers, and Suckers.…

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