Browse Items (307 total)

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is highly enriched in the liver, but its role in the progression of liver steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of gain or…

Ischemic heart disease still represents a large burden on individuals and health care resources worldwide. By conventions, it is equated with atherosclerotic plaque due to flow-limiting obstruction in large-medium sized coronary arteries. However, …

Vascular aging is highly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence is one of its key contributors. However, intracellular and extracellular signaling and communication of senescent VSMCs…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…

Voltage‐gated potassium (Kv) channels expressed in the coronary vasculature play a pivotal role in coupling oxygen delivery with myocardial metabolic demand. Despite their importance in maintaining adequate perfusion to support proper cardiac…

Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, hallmark of SMC phenotypic switching central to the evolution of atherosclerosis, is profoundly enhanced in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia, characteristic of diabetes, increases…

Cytochrome P450 IV (CYP4) are a family of omega‐hydroxylase enzymes. We have previously shown that these fatty acid omega‐hydroxylases function in the hydroxylation of various chain‐length saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the endoplasmic…

Well‐developed coronary collaterals prove to be highly beneficial in salvaging ischemic myocardium, preserving cardiac function, and improving patient outcome post‐occlusion. However, this process of coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in…

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of anomalies including type 2 diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Patients with MetS are 1.5 times more likely to develop late‐onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with impaired glucose…

In the United States, coronary heart diseases (CHD) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. A well‐developed coronary collateral circulation ameliorates the consequences of CHD, reducing the incidence of sudden death and infarct sizes…

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a normal physiological process. However, deregulation of angiogenesis can lead to pathological states such as cancer, that is characterized by hyper‐permeable and tortuous…

Introduction Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cardiovascular complication in patients with diabetes and is defined as ventricular dysfunction (in diabetes) independent of coronary artery disease. In this study, we define a novel role for the…

Background A serious consequence of acute myocardial ischemia‐reperfusion injury (acute I/R) is oxidative damage which causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Such I/R‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction is observed as impaired state‐3 respiration and…

Introduction Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as the “Broken Heart Syndrome” or “Apical Ballooning Syndrome is defined by its characteristic anomaly: when the heart contracts during systole, the apex of the heart dilates as the base of the heart…

Background Bile acid‐CoA: amino acid N‐acyltransferase (BAAT) is the enzyme which is responsible for bile acid (BA) conjugation with glycine and taurine in the final step of bile acid synthesis in humans. More than 98% of BA conjugation occurs in the…

ABSTRACT: Much of COVID-19 disease can be attributed to the stable structure of the envelope, which facilitates its transmission; the spike protein and its receptor which determine which tissues get infected and are susceptible to viral and immune…

Transient potential receptor vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is an ion channel responsible for sensing osmotic and mechanical signals, which in turn regulates calcium signaling across cell membranes. TRPV4 is widely expressed throughout the body, and plays an…

Background: Activation of hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs, lineage(lin) - stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit) + stem cell antigen-1(Sca-1) + , or LKS cells in mice] is critical for initiating the granulopoietic response. This study determined the…

BACKGROUND: Activation of hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs, lineage(lin)(-) stem cell growth factor receptor(c-kit)(+) stem cell antigen-1(Sca-1)(+) or LKS cells in mice], is critical for initiating the granulopoietic response. This study determined …

Chronic inflammation is a common feature of obesity, with elevated cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the circulation and tissues. Here, we report an unconventional IL-1R-MyD88-IRAK2-PHB/OPA1 signaling axis that reprograms mitochondrial…

The growing evidence has been tried to explain and characterize C1q/TNF- related proteins (CTRPs) family as the potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets of obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and…

Asthma is characterized by pathological airway remodeling resulting from persistent myofibroblast activation. Although transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), mechanical signals, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in fibroblast…

Although current guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease acknowledge that multiple mechanisms may precipitate myocardial ischemia, recommended diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic algorithms are still focused on obstructive…

Rodents have at least five carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) genes, whereas there is only one CES1 gene in humans, raising the question as to whether human CES1 and mouse Ces1 genes share the same functions. In this study, we investigate the role of human…

http://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2046-2484/vide o/15-3-reading-chiang a video presentation of this article http://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2046-2484/vide o/15-3-interview-chiang an…

Cardiac fibrosis caused by adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction can eventually lead to heart failure. Although the role of soluble factors such as TGF-beta is well studied in cardiac fibrosis following myocardial injury, the…

Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is commonly present in patients with metabolic derangements and is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to myocardial ischemia, both in the presence and absence of epicardial coronary…

Bile acid synthesis is the most significant pathway for catabolism of cholesterol and for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids are physiological detergents that absorb, distribute, metabolize, and excrete nutrients, drugs,…

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide mortality. Intravital microscopy has provided unprecedented insight into leukocyte biology by enabling the visualization of dynamic responses within living organ systems at the cell-scale. The…

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