Browse Items (217 total)

Purpose Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetics. Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment option for DME, although the injections are costly and require…

BACKGROUND: Spitz nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms that typically present as rapidly growing solitary lesions on the head, neck, or lower extremities. Very rare reports have been described in African Americans. METHODS: A single-institution …

BACKGROUND: This study aims to understand the perspectives of operative autonomy of surgical residents at various postgraduate levels. METHODS: Categorical general surgery residents at a single academic residency were invited to participate in …

BACKGROUND The treatment of complex tumors in non-functioning renal transplants requiring surgical extirpation is challenging. Here, we report the largest series of patients who underwent transplant radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma…

INTRODUCTION: Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be a life-threatening condition. This is usually diagnosed and managed by an upper GI tract endoscopy. When treating actively bleeding duodenal ulcers, surgical intervention, or arterial …

OBJECTIVE: The degree decision aids (DAs) can promote active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) remains poorly understood. Herein, we surveyed radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (URO) about their attitudes towards DAs in …

PURPOSE: Multiple robotic-assisted surgeries are often performed within a single operating day; however, the impact of this practice on patient outcomes has not been examined. We aim to determine whether outcomes for robotic-assisted laparoscopic …

No licensed vaccine exists against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a disease caused by the Leishmania donovani parasite. We have previously reported both macrophages and dendritic cells play important role in the protection induced by a live…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often characterized by accumulation of lipids in the liver. It presents a pathological spectrum of changes from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. It is also often associated with obesity and insulin…

Lymphatic anomalies (LA) are rare conditions characterized by abnormal vascularization of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis). Gorham‐Stout Disease (GSD) is an aggressive type of LA which invades cortical bone and makes it “disappear”. There is…

Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, hallmark of SMC phenotypic switching central to the evolution of atherosclerosis, is profoundly enhanced in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia, characteristic of diabetes, increases…

Cytochrome P450 IV (CYP4) are a family of omega‐hydroxylase enzymes. We have previously shown that these fatty acid omega‐hydroxylases function in the hydroxylation of various chain‐length saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the endoplasmic…

Well‐developed coronary collaterals prove to be highly beneficial in salvaging ischemic myocardium, preserving cardiac function, and improving patient outcome post‐occlusion. However, this process of coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in…

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of anomalies including type 2 diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Patients with MetS are 1.5 times more likely to develop late‐onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with impaired glucose…

In the United States, coronary heart diseases (CHD) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. A well‐developed coronary collateral circulation ameliorates the consequences of CHD, reducing the incidence of sudden death and infarct sizes…

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a normal physiological process. However, deregulation of angiogenesis can lead to pathological states such as cancer, that is characterized by hyper‐permeable and tortuous…

Introduction Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cardiovascular complication in patients with diabetes and is defined as ventricular dysfunction (in diabetes) independent of coronary artery disease. In this study, we define a novel role for the…

Over the last 50 years progress has been made in treating childhood and adult solid and hematological tumors. One commonly used chemotherapeutic agent is doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, which was discovered in early 1960s.…

Introduction Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as the “Broken Heart Syndrome” or “Apical Ballooning Syndrome is defined by its characteristic anomaly: when the heart contracts during systole, the apex of the heart dilates as the base of the heart…

In mice, the caller's production of social vocalizations has been extensively studied but the effect of these vocalizations on the listener is less understood, with playback studies to date utilizing one vocalization category or listeners of one sex.…

Objective: In individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA), self-reported physical function is poorer in African Americans than in whites, but whether this difference holds true for objective assessments is unclear. The purpose of this study was to…

PRéCIS:: Small but significant decreases in OCTA-measured circumpapillary capillary density were observed in healthy eyes dilated with 2.5% phenylephrine/0.5% tropicamide. Though likely clinically insignificant, ophthalmologists should consider these…

Objective: To validate the Martini staging system for postoperative rectourethral fistula (RUF) utilizing data from previous studies to determine whether it can accurately predict postoperative success rate.; Methods: A systematic search of…

Purpose: Radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy is considered standard of care in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Surgical ligation and interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC), however, is sometimes necessary when the tumor…

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease in which the retinal ganglion cell axons of the optic nerve degenerate concomitant with synaptic changes in the retina, leading finally to death of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Electrical stimulation has…

Transient potential receptor vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is an ion channel responsible for sensing osmotic and mechanical signals, which in turn regulates calcium signaling across cell membranes. TRPV4 is widely expressed throughout the body, and plays an…

As the number of patients with diabetes continues to grow, complications of diabetes have likewise increased. Specifically, diabetic foot ulcers have become a massive burden to both the diabetic patient population and national healthcare systems.…

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is characterized by persistent clonal expansion of adult hematopoietic stem cells, which has been increasingly found to be associated with cardiovascular disease and adverse outcomes in heart…

Plummer_MA-Thesis_09.21.2020.pdf
Mental illness has been a subject of fictional film since the early 20th century and continues to be a popular trope in mainstream movies. Portrayals of affected individuals in movies tend to be inaccurate and largely stigmatizing, negatively…

As the number of patients with diabetes continues to grow, complications of diabetes have likewise increased. Specifically, diabetic foot ulcers have become a massive burden to both the diabetic patient population and national healthcare systems.…

Fournier's gangrene is a life-threatening type of necrotizing fasciitis associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The patient is a 29-year-old incarcerated male who presented to the ED with left-sided scrotal crepitus extending into the…

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and preeclampsia in pregnant women are each independently associated with poorer neonatal outcomes. We study obesity and preeclampsia alone and also in combination in pregnant women to determine their association with neonatal…

This article considers 3 reasons for derogatory humor in clinical settings and argues that when such humor is directed at patients without understanding their complex histories, it can diminish the therapeutic relationship rather than serve as a…

Metastatic salivary gland tumors are rare clinical entities of the head and neck. Parotid gland carcinoma with distant metastases heralds a poor prognosis with a median survival of 4.3-7.3 months. The lungs, long bones, liver and brain are the …

PURPOSE: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetics. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment option for DME, although the injections are costly and require…

PURPOSE: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting hospital systems and the availability of resources for surgical procedures. Our aim is to provide guidance for urologists to help prioritize urologic cancer surgeries. …

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between postoperative hyperglycemia and surgical site infection among patients who underwent primary instrumented spinal fusion surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected data on all eligible patients …

INTRODUCTION: The pediatric kidney is the most common urinary tract organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma. Trauma care in the United States has been established into a hierarchical system verified by the American College of Surgeons (ACS).…
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