Browse Items (412 total)

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have…

Swallowing in mammals requires the precise coordination of multiple oropharyngeal structures, including the palatopharyngeal arch. During a typical swallow, the activity of the palatopharyngeus muscle produces pharyngeal shortening to assist in…

Infant birth weight affects neuromotor and biomechanical swallowing performance in infant pig models. Preterm infants are generally born low birth weight and suffer from delayed development and neuromotor deficits. These deficits include critical …

An increasing number of studies show that listeners often have difficulty hearing in situations with background noise, despite normal tuning curves in quiet. One potential source of this difficulty could be sensorineural changes in the auditory …

OBJECTIVES: In many primates, the greater proportion of climbing and suspensory behaviors in the juvenile repertoire likely necessitates good grasping capacities. Here, we tested whether very young individuals show near-maximal levels of grasping …

We discuss the evolution, phylogenetic relations to right whales, and geographical distribution of bowhead whales. We summarize its relations to humans, including whaling by indigenous and European whalers, conservation efforts, and modern challenges…

Indigenous whalers know a great deal about the habits and environment of bowhead whales. That knowledge is essential for safe and effective hunting and has also been invaluable to scientific research and management of bowheads. Studies in Chukotka,…

The commercial hunt of the four stocks of bowhead whales by the nations of Europe and North America commenced in 1540 and came to an effective end at the start of World War I. At that time, all four stocks had been driven to near extinction. Whalers…

In the late 1980s, annual carbon isotope cycles in the baleen plates of bowhead whales formed the basis of the first effective means of estimating bowhead age. However, the baleen aging method could only be used for aging subadult whales less than…

Bowhead whales are some of the largest animals that occupy the Arctic Circle. Despite the challenges of living and giving birth in icy waters, having huge blubber stores, eating a fat-rich diet, and undergoing arduous migrations, bowheads achieved…

The sensory biology of bowhead whales reflects features both related to their origin from land mammals and adaptations to their current environment, polar seas. There is anatomical and genomic evidence that bowheads have a sense of smell. Their sense…

An understanding of the functional morphology of the bowhead whale continues to have significance for population management. This chapter first examines the anatomical features of the bowhead whale reproductive system, with an emphasis on the female.…

The postcranial skeleton of bowhead whales was described in detail more than 100 years ago. The musculature of bowheads has not been studied in detail but matches that of other mysticetes in general features. In this chapter, we focus on some aspects…

The skull of the bowhead whale is composed of all the bones commonly found in mammals, although the shape of these bones is far from ordinary. Features related to feeding dominate the skull: there are no teeth, and the rostrum is long and curved,…

The prenatal development of bowhead whales is poorly known, and no complete ontogenetic series exist. However, the available embryos and fetuses elucidate aspects of the development of the species, as well as that of all of mysticetes in general, and…

Bering–Chukchi–Beaufort Sea bowhead whales are born at about 4.2m in length and 1000kg, in lead systems along the NW Alaskan coast. Bowheads in the other northern stocks are also born in ice-covered seas. Maximum body lengths (standard measure) can…

During the land-to-water transition in the Eocene epoch, the cetacean skeleton underwent modifications to accommodate life in the seas. These changes are well-documented in the fossil record. The forelimb transformed from a weight-bearing limb with…

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of aspiration in previously studied female infant piglets after a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (uSLN) lesion. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) were…

Little is known about the functions of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs2/3) in the inferior colliculus (IC)-a midbrain structure that is a major integration region of the central auditory system. We investigated how these receptors…

The cetacean visual system is a product of selection pressures favoring underwater vision, yet relatively little is known about it across taxa. Previous studies report several mutations in the opsin genetic sequence in cetaceans, suggesting the …

Immunofluorescence staining is a widely used and powerful tool for the visualization and colocalization of two or more proteins and/or cellular organelles. For colocalization studies in fixed cells, one target protein/organelle is immunostained and…

Cisplatin chemotherapy often causes permanent hearing loss, which leads to a multifaceted decrease in quality of life. Identification of early cisplatin-induced cochlear damage would greatly improve clinical diagnosis and provide potential drug …

Intrinsic properties of neurons are one major determinant for how neurons respond to their synaptic inputs and shape their outputs in neural circuits. Here, we studied the intrinsic properties of neurons in the chicken posterior portion of the…

The ability of humans and animals to localize the source of a sound in a complex acoustic environment facilitates communication and survival. Two cues are used for sound localization at horizontal planes, interaural time and level differences (ITD …

The medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB) is a major source of inhibition in auditory brainstem circuitry. The MNTB projects well-timed inhibitory output to principal sound-localization nuclei in the superior olive (SOC) as well as other …

PURPOSE: Transposable elements are known to remodel gene structure and provide a known source of genetic variation. Retrotransposon gag-like-3 (RTL3) is a mammalian retrotransposon-derived transcript (MART) whose function in the skeletal tissue is …

Mammalian infants must be able to integrate the acquisition, transport, and swallowing of food in order to effectively feed. Understanding how these processes are coordinated is critical, as they have differences in neural control and sensitivity…

Mitochondrial function is impaired in osteoarthritis (OA) but its impact on cartilage catabolism is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced activation of catabolic response in …

OBJECTIVE: Lysosomes are the major catabolic organelle of the cell and regulate the macromolecular and organelle turnover and programmed cell death. Here, we investigated the lysosome dysfunction in cartilage and its role in chondrocytes apoptosis…

The basicranium of anthropoid primates is more flexed than in lemurs and lorises (strepsirrhines), which has implications for orientation of facial growth. Differential growth among cranial synchondroses is one suggested mechanism for variation in…

Architectural characteristics of skeletal muscles are important determinants of whole muscle function. Fiber length (Lf) and physiologic cross‐sectional area (PCSA) are correlated with skeletal muscle excursion/contraction velocity and force,…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

It has been hypothesized that the human sphenoid bone is uniquely truncated, which in turn contributes to a reduction of forward midfacial growth. If so, the perinatal fusion of the intrasphenoidal synchondrosis (ISS) in humans may contribute to…

The order Cetacea (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls (even‐toed ungulates) around 50 million years ago. This transition from land to water occurred over an evolutionarily short period of less than 10 million years…

Lymphatic anomalies (LA) are rare conditions characterized by abnormal vascularization of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis). Gorham‐Stout Disease (GSD) is an aggressive type of LA which invades cortical bone and makes it “disappear”. There is…

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide behind Alzheimer’s disease. One prominent feature of PD is the marked loss of dopaminergic and motor dysfunction. Currently, there are no therapies to…
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