The glycoprotein GPNMB attenuates astrocyte inflammatory responses through the CD44 receptor.

Title

The glycoprotein GPNMB attenuates astrocyte inflammatory responses through the CD44 receptor.

Creator

Neal Matthew L; Boyle Alexa M; Budge Kevin M; Safadi Fayez F; Richardson Jason R

Publisher

Journal of neuroinflammation

Date

2018
2018-03

Description

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Activation of glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, is a characteristic of the inflammatory response. Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that releases a soluble signaling peptide when cleaved by ADAM10 or other extracellular proteases. GPNMB has demonstrated a neuroprotective role in animal models of ALS and ischemia. However, the mechanism of this protection has not been well established. CD44 is a receptor expressed on astrocytes that can bind GPNMB, and CD44 activation has been demonstrated to reduce NFkappaB activation and subsequent inflammatory responses in macrophages. GPNMB signaling has not been investigated in models of PD or specifically in astrocytes. More recently, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in GPNMB with risk for PD. Therefore, it is important to understand the role this signaling protein plays in PD. METHODS: We used data mining techniques to evaluate mRNA expression of GPNMB and its receptor CD44 in the substantia nigra of PD and control brains. Immunofluorescence and qPCR techniques were used to assess GPNMB and CD44 levels in mice treated with MPTP. In vitro experiments utilized the immortalized mouse astrocyte cell line IMA2.1 and purified primary mouse astrocytes. The effects of recombinant GPNMB on cytokine-induced astrocyte activation was determined by qPCR, immunofluorescence, and measurement of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen production. RESULTS: Increased GPNMB and CD44 expression was observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains and in GFAP-positive astrocytes in an animal model of PD. GPNMB treatment attenuated cytokine-induced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in an astrocyte cell line and primary mouse astrocytes. Using primary mouse astrocytes from CD44 knockout mice, we found that the anti-inflammatory effects of GPNMB are CD44-mediated. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that GPNMB may exert its neuroprotective effect through reducing astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation in a CD44-dependent manner, providing novel mechanistic insight into the neuroprotective properties of GPNMB.

Subject

Astrocyte; CD44; GPNMB; Neuroinflammation; Parkinson's disease

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Pages

73–73

Issue

1

Volume

15

Citation

Neal Matthew L; Boyle Alexa M; Budge Kevin M; Safadi Fayez F; Richardson Jason R, “The glycoprotein GPNMB attenuates astrocyte inflammatory responses through the CD44 receptor.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed January 20, 2021, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/4860.

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