Adherence to Endotracheal Tube Depth Guidelines and Incidence of Malposition in Infants and Children.

Title

Adherence to Endotracheal Tube Depth Guidelines and Incidence of Malposition in Infants and Children.

Creator

Volsko Teresa A; McNinch Neil L; Prough Donald S; Bigham Michael T

Publisher

Respiratory Care

Date

2018
2018-09

Description

BACKGROUND: Adherence to guidelines for endotracheal tube (ETT) insertion depth may not be sufficient to prevent malposition or harm to the patient. To obtain an estimate of ETT malpositioning, we evaluated initial postintubation chest radiographs and hypothesized that many ETTs in multiple intubation settings would be malpositioned despite adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines. METHODS: In a random subset (randomization table) of 2,000 initial chest radiographs obtained from January 1, 2009, to May 5, 2012, we recorded height, weight, age, sex, ETT inner diameter, and cm marking at the lip from the electronic health record. Chest radiographs of poor quality and with spinal or skeletal deformities were excluded. We defined adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support or Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines as the difference between predicted and actual ETT markings at the lip as +/- 0.25, +/- 0.50, or +/- 1.0 cm for ETTs of 2.5-4, 4.5-6.0, or \textgreater6.5 mm inner diameter, respectively. We defined the proper position as the ETT tip being below the thoracic inlet (superior border of the clavicular heads) and \textgreater/=1 cm above the carina. Descriptive statistics reported demographics, guideline adherence, and malposition incidence. The chi-square test was used to assess relationships among intubation setting, malposition, and depth guideline adherence (P \textless .05, significant). RESULTS: We reviewed 507 records, 477 of which met inclusion criteria and had sufficient data for analysis. Fifty-six percent of the subjects were male, with median (interquartile range) age 15.2 (3.4-59.4) months, and 330 ETTs (69%) were malpositioned: 39 above the thoracic inlet, and 291 \textless 1 cm above the carina. Of 79 ETTS (17%) that adhered to depth guidelines, 56 (74%) were malpositioned. Three-hundred seventy-three ETTs (83%) did not meet guidelines. Two-hundred sixty-four (68%) were malpositioned. The intubation setting did not influence malposition or guideline adherence (P = .54). CONCLUSIONS: In infants and children, a high proportion of ETTs were malpositioned on the first postintubation chest radiograph, with little influence of guideline adherence.

Subject

Female; Humans; pediatrics; Male; Ohio; Random Allocation; Incidence; Chi-Square Distribution; Child; Guideline Adherence/*statistics & numerical data; Infant; intubation; Medical Errors/*statistics & numerical data; NRP; PALS; Radiography/*statistics & numerical data; Trachea/diagnostic imaging; tracheal tube malposition; United States; Odds Ratio; Intensive Care Units; Hospitals; Guideline Adherence; Radiography; Intubation; ROC Curve; Confidence Intervals; Inpatients; Human; Chi Square Test; Descriptive Statistics; P-Value; Data Analysis Software; Practice Guidelines; Retrospective Design; Preschool; Thoracic; Intratracheal/adverse effects/standards/*statistics & numerical data; Intratracheal – Standards – United States; Pediatric – Ohio

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Pages

1111–1117

Issue

9

Volume

63

Citation

Volsko Teresa A; McNinch Neil L; Prough Donald S; Bigham Michael T, “Adherence to Endotracheal Tube Depth Guidelines and Incidence of Malposition in Infants and Children.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed April 23, 2021, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/5232.

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