Turnover of histones and histone variants in postnatal rat brain: effects of alcohol exposure.

Title

Turnover of histones and histone variants in postnatal rat brain: effects of alcohol exposure.

Creator

Rachdaoui Nadia; Li Ling; Willard Belinda; Kasumov Takhar; Previs Stephen; Sarkar Dipak

Publisher

Clinical epigenetics

Date

2017
1905-07

Description

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and can result in a continuum of adverse outcomes to the fetus known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Subjects with FASD show significant neurological deficits, ranging from microencephaly, neurobehavioral, and mental health problems to poor social adjustment and stress tolerance. Neurons are particularly sensitive to alcohol exposure. The neurotoxic action of alcohol, i.e., through ROS production, induces DNA damage and neuronal cell death by apoptosis. In addition, epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs), and non-coding RNA, play an important role in the neuropathology of FASD. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics and kinetics of histones and their PTMs in FASD. RESULTS: We examined the effects of postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE), an animal model of human third-trimester equivalent, on the kinetics of various histone proteins in two distinct brain regions, the frontal cortex, and the hypothalamus, using in vivo (2)H2O-labeling combined with mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We show that histones have long half-lives that are in the order of days. We also show that H3.3 and H2Az histone variants have faster turnovers than canonical histones and that acetylated histones, in general, have a faster turnover than unmodified and methylated histones. Our work is the first to show that PAE induces a differential reduction in turnover rates of histones in both brain regions studied. These alterations in histone turnover were associated with increased DNA damage and decreased cell proliferation in postnatal rat brain. CONCLUSION: Alterations in histone turnover might interfere with histone deposition and chromatin stability, resulting in deregulated cell-specific gene expression and therefore contribute to the development of the neurological disorders associated with FASD. Using in vivo (2)H2O-labeling and mass spectrometry-based proteomics might help in the understanding of histone turnover following alcohol exposure and could be of great importance in enabling researchers to identify novel targets and/or biomarkers for the prevention and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Subject

*2H2O-labeling; *Brain; *Genetic Variation; *Histone; *Mass spectrometry; *Post-translational modifications; *Postnatal alcohol exposure; *Turnover; Acetylation; Animal; Animals; Cell Proliferation; Disease Models; DNA Damage; Epigenesis; Female; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/genetics/*metabolism; Genetic; Histones/*genetics/*metabolism; Humans; Post-Translational; Pregnancy; Protein Processing; Proteomics/*methods; Rats; Sprague-Dawley

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Pages

117–117

Volume

9

Citation

Rachdaoui Nadia; Li Ling; Willard Belinda; Kasumov Takhar; Previs Stephen; Sarkar Dipak, “Turnover of histones and histone variants in postnatal rat brain: effects of alcohol exposure.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed January 25, 2021, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/4871.

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