Impairment of pH gradient and membrane potential mediates redox dysfunction in the mitochondria of the post-ischemic heart.

Title

Impairment of pH gradient and membrane potential mediates redox dysfunction in the mitochondria of the post-ischemic heart.

Creator

Kang Patrick T; Chen Chwen-Lih; Lin Paul; Chilian William M; Chen Yeong-Renn

Publisher

Basic research in cardiology

Date

2017
2017-07

Description

The mitochondrial electrochemical gradient (Deltap), which comprises the pH gradient (DeltapH) and the membrane potential (DeltaPsi), is crucial in controlling energy transduction. During myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR), mitochondrial dysfunction mediates superoxide ((.)O2(-)) and H2O2 overproduction leading to oxidative injury. However, the role of DeltapH and DeltaPsi in post-ischemic injury is not fully established. Here we studied mitochondria from the risk region of rat hearts subjected to 30 min of coronary ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. In the presence of glutamate, malate and ADP, normal mitochondria (mitochondria of non-ischemic region, NR) exhibited a heightened state 3 oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and reduced (.)O2(-) and H2O2 production when compared to state 2 conditions. Oligomycin (increases DeltapH by inhibiting ATP synthase) increased (.)O2(-) and H2O2 production in normal mitochondria, but not significantly in the mitochondria of the risk region (IR mitochondria or post-ischemic mitochondria), indicating that normal mitochondrial (.)O2(-) and H2O2 generation is dependent on DeltapH and that IR impaired the DeltapH of normal mitochondria. Conversely, nigericin (dissipates DeltapH) dramatically reduced (.)O2(-) and H2O2 generation by normal mitochondria under state 4 conditions, and this nigericin quenching effect was less pronounced in IR mitochondria. Nigericin also increased mitochondrial OCR, and predisposed normal mitochondria to a more oxidized redox status assessed by increased oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine, CM-H. IR mitochondria, although more oxidized than normal mitochondria, were not responsive to nigericin-induced CM-H oxidation, which is consistent with the result that IR induced DeltapH impairment in normal mitochondria. Valinomycin, a K(+) ionophore used to dissipate DeltaPsi, drastically diminished (.)O2(-) and H2O2 generation by normal mitochondria, but less pronounced effect on IR mitochondria under state 4 conditions, indicating that DeltaPsi also contributed to (.)O2(-) generation by normal mitochondria and that IR mediated DeltaPsi impairment. However, there was no significant difference in valinomycin-induced CM-H oxidation between normal and IR mitochondria. In conclusion, under normal conditions the proton backpressure imposed by DeltapH restricts electron flow, controls a limited amount of (.)O2(-) generation, and results in a more reduced myocardium; however, IR causes DeltapH impairment and prompts a more oxidized myocardium.

Subject

*Energy Metabolism; *Membrane potential; *Membrane Potential; *Mitochondria; *Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion; *Oxidative Stress; *pH gradient; *Redox dysfunction; Aconitate Hydratase/metabolism; Animal; Animals; Cell Line; Disease Models; Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins/metabolism; Heart/*metabolism/pathology; Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Ionophores/pharmacology; Male; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial; Myocardial Infarction/*metabolism/pathology; Myocardium/*metabolism/pathology; Oxidation-Reduction; Potassium/metabolism; Rats; Sprague-Dawley; Superoxides/metabolism

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Pages

36–36

Issue

4

Volume

112

Citation

Kang Patrick T; Chen Chwen-Lih; Lin Paul; Chilian William M; Chen Yeong-Renn, “Impairment of pH gradient and membrane potential mediates redox dysfunction in the mitochondria of the post-ischemic heart.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed October 25, 2021, https://neomed.omeka.net/items/show/3180.

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