An operant-based detection method for inferring tinnitus in mice.


An operant-based detection method for inferring tinnitus in mice.


Zuo Hongyan; Lei Debin; Sivaramakrishnan Shobhana; Howie Benjamin; Mulvany Jessica; Bao Jianxin


Journal of neuroscience methods




BACKGROUND: Subjective tinnitus is a hearing disorder in which a person perceives sound when no external sound is present. It can be acute or chronic. Because our current understanding of its pathology is incomplete, no effective cures have yet been established. Mouse models are useful for studying the pathophysiology of tinnitus as well as for developing therapeutic treatments. NEW METHOD: We have developed a new method for determining acute and chronic tinnitus in mice, called sound-based avoidance detection (SBAD). The SBAD method utilizes one paradigm to detect tinnitus and another paradigm to monitor possible confounding factors, such as motor impairment, loss of motivation, and deficits in learning and memory. RESULTS: The SBAD method has succeeded in monitoring both acute and chronic tinnitus in mice. Its detection ability is further validated by functional studies demonstrating an abnormal increase in neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus of mice that had previously been identified as having tinnitus by the SBAD method. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: The SBAD method provides a new means by which investigators can detect tinnitus in a single mouse accurately and with more control over potential confounding factors than existing methods. CONCLUSION: This work establishes a new behavioral method for detecting tinnitus in mice. The detection outcome is consistent with functional validation. One key advantage of mouse models is they provide researchers the opportunity to utilize an extensive array of genetic tools. This new method could lead to a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways underlying tinnitus pathology.


*Conditioning; *Disease Models; *Inferior colliculus; *Mouse model; *Noise-induced hearing loss; *Operant conditioning; *Sodium salicylate; *Tinnitus; Acoustic Stimulation; Analysis of Variance; Animal; Animals; Auditory; Avoidance Learning; Brain Stem/physiology; Electroshock; Equipment Design; Evoked Potentials; Female; Inbred C57BL; Inferior Colliculi/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Neurons/physiology; Operant; Otoacoustic Emissions; Sodium Salicylate; Spontaneous/physiology; Tinnitus/*diagnosis/physiopathology; Tissue Culture Techniques; Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging


Article information provided for research and reference use only. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).






Zuo Hongyan; Lei Debin; Sivaramakrishnan Shobhana; Howie Benjamin; Mulvany Jessica; Bao Jianxin, “An operant-based detection method for inferring tinnitus in mice.,” NEOMED Bibliography Database, accessed September 27, 2023,