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Activation of farnesoid X receptor (Fxr, Nr1h4) is a major mechanism in suppressing bile-acid synthesis by reducing the expression levels of genes encoding key bile-acid synthetic enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450 [CYP]7A1/Cyp7a1 and CYP8B1/Cyp8b1).…

Bile acids activate a nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), that induces bile salt export pump (BSEP) but inhibits cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene transcription in the liver. Guggulsterone, a plant sterol that lowers serum…

Mounting research evidence demonstrates a significant negative impact of circadian disruption on human health. Shift work, chronic jet lag and sleep disturbances are associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, and consequently result…

Activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protects against hepatic inflammation and injury, while Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) promotes adipose tissue browning and energy metabolism. Here, we examined the…
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