Browse Items (65 total)

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has significantly decreased the burden of PCV13-serotype pneumococcal disease; however, disease due…

Background Little evidence is available regarding the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The primary objective of this study is to compare the outcomes…

Post-influenza bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with both seasonal and pandemic influenza virus illness. However, despite much interest in influenza and its complications in recent years, good clinical trial…

Purpose of review The studies that are reviewed in this article have all concluded that a shorter duration of antibiotic therapy (7-8 days) may be adequate in the treatment of the majority of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, and does…

Asia is a highly heterogeneous region with vastly different cultures, social constitutions and populations affected by a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases caused by tropical pathogens. Asian patients with community-acquired pneumonia differ from…

Pneumococcal infection is common in adults, and invasive disease is associated with a high mortality rate. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine can prevent invasive pneumococcal disease and is recommended for people aged >= 65 years and for younger…

Pneumococcal disease, which includes pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in adults. Advanced age, chronic lung or cardiovascular disease, immunosuppressive…

Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine whether trauma patients requiring psychiatric medication who were admitted with positive alcohol or drug screen require more pain medications or sedation resulting in longer length of stay.…

BACKGROUND: Few studies have measured the burden of adult pneumococcal disease after the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the US infant vaccination schedule. Further, most data regarding pneumococcal serotypes are…

Omadacycline, an aminomethylcycline, is a novel member of the tetracycline class of antibiotics. It has received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute…

Over the last decade, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates has markedly increased. This trend is unsettling because infections caused by S pneumoniae are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in…

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recently published updated guidelines for assessing and treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In contrast to the common practice of treating patients on the basis of clinical…

The 'atypical' pathogens are important causes of pneumonia, causing illness ranging from mild to life-threatening. The most common atypical pathogens are Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae; others include Legionella species, Chlamydia…

Clinical manifestations and radiographic findings are unreliable guides to the selection of antimicrobial therapy for lower respiratory infections. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to identify the etiologic agent. Multiple oral antibiotics are…

Suppurative complications to aspiration pneumonia occur if the initial aspiration and subsequent pneumonitis go unrecognized or untreated. Anaerobic cavitary disease is typically an indolent process, whereas necrotizing pneumonia is more fulminant…

The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been described as early as 1972 [Hill 1972]. Though a subsequent randomized trial showed no survival benefit over conventional…

Empiric antimicrobial prescribing for community-acquired pneumonia remains a challenge, despite the availability of treatment guidelines. A number of key differences exist between North American and European guidelines, mainly in the outpatient…

The tremendous therapeutic advantage afforded by antibiotics is being threatened by the emergence of increasingly resistant strains of microbes. Selective pressure favoring resistant strains arises from misuse and overuse of antimicrobials (notably…

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