Browse Items (405 total)

Ageing is a leading risk factor predisposing cartilage to osteoarthritis. However, little research has been conducted on the effect of ageing on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). RNA from young and old chondrocytes from …

One emerging concept in neuroscience states that synaptic vesicles and the molecular machinery underlying spontaneous transmitter release are different from those underlying action potential-driven synchronized transmitter release. Differential …

The inferior colliculus processes nearly all ascending auditory information. Most collicular cells respond to sound, and for a majority of these cells, the responses can be modulated by acetylcholine (ACh). The cholinergic effects are varied and, for…

Condiments are rarely consumed on their own. Although addition of condiments to carrier foods is known to affect oral processing behavior and sensory perception, an understanding of how different condiment properties impact oral processing behavior…

Wild primates face grave conservation challenges, with habitat loss and climate change projected to cause mass extinctions in the coming decades. As large-bodied Neotropical primates, mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) are predicted to fare…

The paternally imprinted neuronatin (NNAT) gene has been identified as a target of aberrant epigenetic silencing in diverse cancers, but no association with pediatric bone cancers has been reported to date. In screening childhood cancers, we…

BACKGROUND: mir-RNAs play a role in regulating bone homeostasis. In this study we assessed the functional role of mir-RNA 150 in bone homeostasis. We also assess the effects of miR-150 deficiency on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and…

The ability to detect a silent gap within a sound is critical for accurate speech perception, and gap detection has been shown to have an extended developmental trajectory. In certain conditions, the detectability of the gap decreases as the gap is…

Olfactory cues play an important role in mammalian biology, but have been challenging to assess in the field. Current methods pose problematic issues with sample storage and transportation, limiting our ability to connect chemical variation in scents…

Movements of the hyoid and thyroid are critical for feeding. These structures are often assumed to move in synchrony, despite evidence that neurologically compromised populations exhibit altered kinematics. Preterm infants are widely considered to be…

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease highlighted by a marked loss of dopaminergic cell loss and motor disturbances. Currently, there are no drugs that slow the progression of the disease. A myriad of factors have been…

Deleterious age-related changes in the central auditory nervous system have been referred to as central age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) or central presbycusis. Central ARHI is often assumed to be the consequence of peripheral ARHI. However, it…

Arboreal environments present considerable biomechanical challenges for animals moving and foraging among substrates varying in diameter, orientation, and compliance. Most studies of quadrupedal gait kinematics in primates and other arboreal mammals…

Many primates show responses to dead infants, yet testing explanations for these behaviors has been difficult. Callitrichids present a unique opportunity to delineate between hypotheses, since unlike most species, male caretakers form closer social…

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are novel regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. However, the expression profiles and their role in post-transcriptional gene regulation in chondrocytes is…

Located in the midbrain, the inferior colliculus (IC) integrates information from numerous auditory nuclei and is an important hub for sound processing. Despite its importance, little is known about the molecular identity and functional roles of…

Fine-branch models have long played a central role in primate evolutionary research. Nevertheless, recent studies of positional behavior in nonprimate arboreal mammals have challenged the idea that synapomorphic primate features, such as grasping…

Animal models have significantly contributed to understanding the pathophysiology of chronic subjective tinnitus. They are useful because they control etiology, which in humans is heterogeneous; employ random group assignment; and often use methods…

An ossified or 'fused' mandibular symphysis characterizes the origins of the Anthropoidea, a primate suborder that includes humans. Longstanding debate about the adaptive significance of variation in this jaw joint centers on whether a bony…

All mammals undergo weaning from milk to solid food. This process requires substantial changes to mammalian oropharyngeal function. The coordination of swallowing and respiration is a crucial component of maintaining airway function throughout…

Urinary stone disease (USD) is affecting a greater number of children and low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased skeletal fractures have been demonstrated in stone patients; however, the mechanism(s) driving bone disease remain unclear. This…

Orbital glands are found in many tetrapod vertebrates, and are usually separate structures, consisting of individual glands lying in the eyelids and both canthi of the orbit. In cetaceans, however, the orbital glandular units are less distinct and…

OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to determine if (a) consumption of hard food items or a mixture of food items leads to the formation of premolar or molar microwear in laboratory capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) in one feeding session and (b) rates of…

Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Nitric oxide (NO) has been established as one of the major inflammatory mediators in OA and drives many pathological changes during the…

Aerodigestive coordination is critical for safe feeding in mammals, and failure to do so can result in aspiration. Using an infant pig model, we analyzed the impact of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lesion on aerodigestive coordination and swallow…

The superior laryngeal nerve provides detailed sensory information from the mucosal surfaces of laryngeal structures superior to the vocal folds, including the valleculae. Injury to this nerve results in airway penetration and aspiration.…

The development of knockin mice with Cre recombinase expressed under the control of the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) has allowed experimental manipulation of cholinergic circuits. However, currently available ChAT(Cre) mouse lines…

Age-related hearing loss, one of the most frequently diagnosed disabilities in industrialized countries, may result from declining levels of GABA in the aging inferior colliculus (IC). However, the mechanisms of aging and subsequent disruptions of…
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