Browse Items (63 total)

The order Cetacea (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls (even‐toed ungulates) around 50 million years ago. This transition from land to water occurred over an evolutionarily short period of less than 10 million years…

Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Nitric oxide (NO) has been established as one of the major inflammatory mediators in OA and drives many pathological changes during the…

Mitochondrial function is impaired in osteoarthritis (OA) but its impact on cartilage catabolism is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced activation of catabolic response in …

OBJECTIVE: Lysosomes are the major catabolic organelle of the cell and regulate the macromolecular and organelle turnover and programmed cell death. Here, we investigated the lysosome dysfunction in cartilage and its role in chondrocytes apoptosis…

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint degenerative disease leading to irreversible structural and functional changes in the joint and is a major cause of disability and reduced life expectancy in ageing population. Despite the high …

Ageing is a leading risk factor predisposing cartilage to osteoarthritis. However, little research has been conducted on the effect of ageing on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). RNA from young and old chondrocytes from …

PURPOSE: Transposable elements are known to remodel gene structure and provide a known source of genetic variation. Retrotransposon gag-like-3 (RTL3) is a mammalian retrotransposon-derived transcript (MART) whose function in the skeletal tissue is …

Deleterious age-related changes in the central auditory nervous system have been referred to as central age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) or central presbycusis. Central ARHI is often assumed to be the consequence of peripheral ARHI. However, it…

The development of knockin mice with Cre recombinase expressed under the control of the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) has allowed experimental manipulation of cholinergic circuits. However, currently available ChAT(Cre) mouse lines…

All mammals undergo weaning from milk to solid food. This process requires substantial changes to mammalian oropharyngeal function. The coordination of swallowing and respiration is a crucial component of maintaining airway function throughout…

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide behind Alzheimer’s disease. One prominent feature of PD is the marked loss of dopaminergic and motor dysfunction. Currently, there are no therapies to…

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease highlighted by a marked loss of dopaminergic cell loss and motor disturbances. Currently, there are no drugs that slow the progression of the disease. A myriad of factors have been…

Bowhead whales are among the longest-lived mammals with an extreme lifespan of about 211 years. During the first 25 years of their lives, rib bones increase in mineral density and the medulla transitions from compact to trabecular bone. Molecular …

Arboreal environments present considerable biomechanical challenges for animals moving and foraging among substrates varying in diameter, orientation, and compliance. Most studies of quadrupedal gait kinematics in primates and other arboreal mammals…

Animal models have significantly contributed to understanding the pathophysiology of chronic subjective tinnitus. They are useful because they control etiology, which in humans is heterogeneous; employ random group assignment; and often use methods…

The ability to detect a silent gap within a sound is critical for accurate speech perception, and gap detection has been shown to have an extended developmental trajectory. In certain conditions, the detectability of the gap decreases as the gap is…

The ability of humans and animals to localize the source of a sound in a complex acoustic environment facilitates communication and survival. Two cues are used for sound localization at horizontal planes, interaural time and level differences (ITD …

Understanding the interactions between neural and musculoskeletal systems is key to identifying mechanisms of functional failure. Mammalian swallowing is a complex, poorly understood motor process. Lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a sensory…

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are novel regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. However, the expression profiles and their role in post-transcriptional gene regulation in chondrocytes is…

Objectives: Variation in primate masticatory form and function has been extensively researched through both morphological and experimental studies. As a result, symphyseal fusion in different primate clades has been linked to either the recruitment…

Little is known about the functions of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs2/3) in the inferior colliculus (IC)-a midbrain structure that is a major integration region of the central auditory system. We investigated how these receptors…

Urinary stone disease (USD) is affecting a greater number of children and low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased skeletal fractures have been demonstrated in stone patients; however, the mechanism(s) driving bone disease remain unclear. This…

The superior laryngeal nerve provides detailed sensory information from the mucosal surfaces of laryngeal structures superior to the vocal folds, including the valleculae. Injury to this nerve results in airway penetration and aspiration.…

Age-related hearing loss, one of the most frequently diagnosed disabilities in industrialized countries, may result from declining levels of GABA in the aging inferior colliculus (IC). However, the mechanisms of aging and subsequent disruptions of…

It has been hypothesized that the human sphenoid bone is uniquely truncated, which in turn contributes to a reduction of forward midfacial growth. If so, the perinatal fusion of the intrasphenoidal synchondrosis (ISS) in humans may contribute to…

Movements of the hyoid and thyroid are critical for feeding. These structures are often assumed to move in synchrony, despite evidence that neurologically compromised populations exhibit altered kinematics. Preterm infants are widely considered to be…

Mammalian infants must be able to integrate the acquisition, transport, and swallowing of food in order to effectively feed. Understanding how these processes are coordinated is critical, as they have differences in neural control and sensitivity…

Infant mammalian feeding is a complex process that requires the integration of different behaviors and over twenty‐five muscles controlled by multiple cranial nerves. Despite extensive characterization of muscle activity during a feeding sequence,…

BACKGROUND: mir-RNAs play a role in regulating bone homeostasis. In this study we assessed the functional role of mir-RNA 150 in bone homeostasis. We also assess the effects of miR-150 deficiency on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and…

In mice, the caller's production of social vocalizations has been extensively studied but the effect of these vocalizations on the listener is less understood, with playback studies to date utilizing one vocalization category or listeners of one sex.…

The inferior colliculus processes nearly all ascending auditory information. Most collicular cells respond to sound, and for a majority of these cells, the responses can be modulated by acetylcholine (ACh). The cholinergic effects are varied and, for…
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